Sunday, June 13, 2010


(Amazing, Astounding, Astonishing, Incredible, Unbelievable, Phenomenal, Marvelous, Mind-Blowing, Extraordinary, Inexplicable, Wonderful,
Mundane (Antonym), Wondrous)

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We have studied water as anomalous liquid, because it is heaviest at 4 degree centigrade and lighter at higher or lower temperature; life is not possible without this property of water. Water can carry or absorb highest quantity of heat of all the other matter. So RAIN CYCLE CONTROLS OUR CLIMATE. And as a fluid its use to harness hydropower is mind blowing. Earth has unlimited hydropower to harness unlimited hydroelectricity. We wouldn’t need new undertakings for tapping hydroelectricity. Even the existing infrastructure we have already installed can harness unlimited hydropower by just adding turbines in series without breaking water column. Fluid properties of water and its behaviour while running allow us to do that. Works as a string without breaking its mass while flowing, water pressure throughout the water column is uniform, only downward pressure and also not according to the height. Unfortunately we are applying the properties of water column that is standing still, totally different condition. Conical and jet penstock pipe assuming force is increased. It is a stupid mistake.


The key climate regulator or the decisive climate controller is the rain cycle. Water has the highest heat absorbing or heat holding capacity of all the matters on earth. 1gm of water needs one calorie of heat to raise its temperature through one degree centigrade. This is almost 8 times more than that of iron.

Both water and ice can be at zero degree centigrade. Ice at zero and water at zero, the difference is 80 calories of heat. It is called the latent heat of freezing. So we need to take 80 calories of heat from 1gm of water which is at zero degree, then water will turn into ice. To reverse the process we have to provide 80 calories of heat to 1gm of ice at zero to melt it into water of zero degree centigrade. Those 80 calories of heat means raising 80 degree centigrade of 1gm of water from zero to 79 degree centigrade, 21 calories more means that amount water will reach at boiling point but will not boil. We need to supply 560 calories of heat for each gram of water to make it to boil. Boiling is the process of converting of water into steam. Steam and water, both can be at 100 degree centigrade. Steam at 100 degree centigrade and water at 100 degree centigrade, difference is 560 calories. It is the latent heat of vaporization. In other words, providing 560 calories of heat to 1gm of water at 100 degree centigrade will convert it into steam. Reversing the process means taking out 560 calories of heat from the steam to convert steam into 1gm of water. This is the reason why it becomes immediately cold when it rains. Thus change of forms, liquid water to steam water needs huge amount of heat. 560 calories of heat can boil 56 gm of water at zero degree centigrade.

Similarly when we think of the amount of heat required in the process of vaporization we can easily calculate and be surprised how much heat is released to the space by the rain cycle. No other matter can do this miracle, not even by gases of our homogenous atmosphere though they are delivering heat from the earth to the space all the time. Space can take heat indefinitely. Space is always cold. Even our ozonosphere is 58 degree centigrade below zero. So we can easily imagine how cold the space could be, where there is no matter to hold heat.

We know the rain means colder atmosphere, good irrigation, abundant drinking water, snow on poles and mountains, recharging ground water; thus lower sea water level. So for evaporation we need to scatter water all over the earth to revive rain cycle. In other words take water back to the places where it came from. The nature’s way is the rain cycle. Rain cycle Maintains temperature on earth within a range.

Global warming has nothing to do with gas. So for global warming and climate change we can’t blame gases but ourselves, may be our way of life or our unscientific civilization.
Gases can’t form green house; it is impossible. Making of green house requires solid transparent materials like, plastics or glasses. So we can’t blame gases for green house effect, thus global warming. Heat is always transmitted from higher to lower temperature. Gases have freely moving molecules so do not remain layered. Our immediate atmosphere is a homogenous mixture. If layered at all CO¬¬¬2 would be the lower most layer and that means we are all dead. We need oxygen to be alive. Higher we go the immediate / climatic atmosphere is colder. Heat can’t return back from the colder front to hotter zone. Gases carry heat high up as convection current and by convection method of heat transmission it delivers heat from the hotter earth to the colder zone high up in the atmosphere where it is very cold. Although the process goes round the clock heat transfer is not enough to keep the earth cold comfortably. This is because the air is very very thin. 1cc of air has negligible mass in comparison to 1gm of water for the same volume. Similarly, rain cycle has no relationship with any gases or anything but evaporation from the surface of the earth, which occurs due to the heat of the sun. Evaporation takes up very large quantity of heat as I have shown the calculations above. Water has highest heat absorbing capacity, so it can lower temperature of any heated object drastically. It is the reason we use water to extinguish fire. If we one put one bucket of water in the sun it can’t evaporate even in weeks, but if we scatter on the surface of the earth that amount of water will evaporate in a matter of hour. So regular rain cycle by the evaporation of sea water or pond or river is not possible, though they can boost the rains during hot season or monsoon.

# We disrupted rain cycle by covering land with houses, pavements, roads etc
Deforestation and creating deserted lands and vast stretches of deserts

So we must blame ourselves for global warming / climate change

Delivering water to wide areas of land as much as possible is the one and only way to solve the problems related to climate change. Solution is very easy now for the capabilities of mankind.

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