Thursday, August 29, 2013

Post 27 Saying concisely on Power Crisis and Climate Change

post 27
Dev Bahadur Dongol Ph.D. Nottingham University, England, U.K. (1986) Science Teacher Educator, Pension Book SN. 104 Retired Voluntarily ‘94, Associate Prof. TU, Email:   Mobile: 977 9841 647 393 / Residence:  01 4 25 30 45

Saying concisely on: Power crisis an Climate change
== Scrolling down previous posts you will find the explanations of the following statements

1.       ‘Running Turbines In Series’ As The Solution To Power Crisis.

Maintaining uniformity and continuity of running water column is possible even after installing turbines in series by making water pathway through the turbines also uniform. Running turbines does not change the flow of water, so turbines don’t decrease the power of running water. This way we can harness unlimited hydropower theoretically, if it were possible to fit a turbine at every section; that is not possible practically. Practically we can tap power as many times as the number of turbines are possible to fit in series along the same penstock pipe (between the intake and discharge points). So we are tapping only minimum hydropower at present from a given single penstock pipe by applying property of standing still water column; whereas many times more hydropower, if not unlimited, are possible by applying the property of running water column as is the condition in the hydropower installation. Series installation of the turbines will also require modifying the shape of the blades of the turbines so that they exactly fit the pathways of the uniformly running water column.

2.       Climate Change : solution to CC requires development of water supply system so that every nook and corner of the land surface can be kept always moist and continuously recharge ground water as happens naturally. Plants also use up ground water by transpiration. ==
That means we can reverse the present climate change. In other words, we can control the climate the way we want just by determining the areas of earth's land surface to keep dry or moist. Drier the land surface areas the warmer is the climate and less frequent rain cycle. And, moist the larger area of land surface the cooler is the climate and more frequent rain cycle.

1.       GLOBAL warming due to gases is impossible. They are helping the earth to cool down by convection method of heat transmission.

2.       Gases can’t form a green house.

3.       No ‘green house effect’ due to gases. So ‘green house gas’ does not exist.

4.       Our climatic atmosphere, troposphere is a homogenous mixture of gases, not layered. If it were layered, CO2, the heaviest gas would be at the bottom of the atmosphere not on top.

5.       Every matter radiates absorbed heat back as IR not only by CO2 or methane.

6.       We are draining water to sea by creating drier land surface by covering soil surface and reducing evaporation system vital for ‘rain cycle’ and blocking ‘ground water recharge system’.

7.       ‘Rain Cycle’, nature’s cooling system, regulates earth’s surface temperature.

8.       Moisture contents on land surface regulate rain cycle. Moist, the cooler and drier, the warmer. ==

9.       Ozone does not absorb ‘UV heat’ but releases ‘UV heat’ absorbed by oxygen (O2). UV heat converts oxygen into unstable ozone.

10.   Ozone depletion before the extinction of human race is impossible. Temporary fluctuation is due to millions of jet flights every day. They consume incalculable amount of oxygen from the stratosphere which is basically oxygen, though we say Ozonosphere (wrong name).

Tuesday, May 14, 2013

Post No. 26



It is possible to run many turbines in series along a single uniform penstock pipe without decreasing their efficiency.

Dr. Dev Bahadur Dongol

(The available force of Gravity is unlimited; it can’t be reduced nor blocked nor shifted. It is constant and always there at any given point. So we need to devise a method to tap that unlimited power. This is possible by having the source of water by flowing continuously as far as possible, longer the distance the more space for tapping the force as in the hydraulic press. Series installation fulfills that condition for tapping unlimited ‘G’. It is similar to first class lever, hydraulic press and multiple pulley system where we can lift more load by less efforts. We can’t use the method of lever nor pulleys with fluids like water but definitely we can use the method of hydraulic press by keeping water running continuously to keep turbine running consistently continuous.)

Standing still water column has pressure effect according to the depth, the greater the height of the water column the greater are the lateral and down ward pressure. But in uniform running water column the down ward pressure is uniform throughout and acts only in the direction of the water flow and has no lateral pressure. So a number of turbines installed in series can run uniformly and independently at any point of the running water column. Thus, present practice of installing only one turbine at the bottom of a running water column by applying the property of standing still water column is blunder in hydropower engineering. At present we are tapping only minimum hydropower out of the available unlimited hydropower that is possible by installing turbines in series.

Model Turbine – water meter is ideal as model turbine. It can’t be better than those as ideal model turbines for experimental purposes.


Fix any number of model turbines (water meters) in series between pieces of uniform rubber tube. (Tap – tubing – model turbine – tubing and so on). I did with three model turbines. Completely fill the rubber tubing with water, from intake to the discharge point. Then drain water from a bucket or tap. While water is running all the model turbines run simultaneously. Stop water at the discharge point or at outlet, all the model turbines stop instantly; still water remains throughout the tubing. Drain any quantity of water, all the model turbines (water meters) show the same reading. As for example, if we drain 100 ml. of water, all of them show 100 ml. of water is discharged.

Answer: for video clip scroll down

Saturday, November 20, 2010
Under D4

Explanations: – Each model turbine runs independently, uniformly, and rate of discharging water is same at any point along the uniform water running pipe. Water keeps on running consistently before and after each turbine.


1. Rate of discharging water is uniform, so power of running water is not changed, remains constant.

2. Velocity of water is uniform throughout the running water column.

3. All model turbines in series rotate uniformly and independently, they don’t decrease the power of running water. So each of them can run a generator of equal capacity.

Conclusion: Each of the model Turbines in series can function independently without decreasing their efficiency.


Modify the turbines in practice so that many of them can be installed in series along the same penstock pipe without breaking uniformity and continuity of running water column and thus open the door for harnessing unlimited hydropower.


1. No other sources of energy will be needed. We wouldn’t need even a fraction of hydropower available in

the Nature. No nuclear, no coal, no gas, no diesel etc. but only HYDROPOWER.

2. TOCARDO – It is also applicable in the TOCARDO system of harnessing hydropower with modification.

NB: The experiment can be done by blowing air with mouth as well and get the same result.

(Related information on these is helpful / useful:

1. Introduction of hydropower turbine installation, Defining Head, Turbine and Generator etc. 2. Role of rushing water, 3. Tapping electricity as per the quantity of water being discharged – 100,00,00 L/sec means 1MW)

(Dev Bahadur Dongol, Ph.D. 1986, Nottingham University, UK. Voluntarily Retired Associate Prof. 1994, TU as Science Teacher Educator, Email – Mobile: 9841 647 393 Blog: