Saturday, November 20, 2010

1 of 24 posts FOUR SCIENTIFIC HUMAN MISTAKES

I. FOUR SCIENTIFIC HUMAN MISTAKES (see section II and VI for more details)

A1. BLAMING GASES FOR GLOBAL WARMING/ CLIMATE CHANGE. ( – IMPOSSIBLE, 8 REASONS.)

Whole world is going after hearsay, gossip, rumor, guesswork, speculations or assumptions. the rumor is not acceptable by the standard of established scientific theories.

1.a. Gases as fluids with freely moving molecules can't form a green house which is a structure covered by transparent solid materials, plastics or glasses.
1b. Green house effect is traping heat inside the green house
1c. sun heats the earth and materials on the earth absorb heat and holds it untill the cooling system works. cooling systems in nature is convection method of heat transmission and rain cycle. water vapour and air molecules all hold heat according to their own capacity. this heat holding nature of matter is not green house effect.

2.Heat travels from higher to lower temperature,so heat reached high up in the colder zone of the atmosphere cannot return to the hotter zone down at lower height because heat gets absorbed by the colder molecules in the surrounding.

3.Our climatic atmosphere is a homogenous mixture not layered, had it been layered carbon dioxide would be the lower most layer just above the earth's surface then we would be dead,

4.By convection method of heat transmission gases are helping the earth to cool down,

5.The troposphere is cooler the higher we go, at 30,000 feet temp is minus 58degree centigrade and so on.

6. Our atmosphere is perfect transparent after vacuum so reflection phenomenon is not possible. If gases of our atmosphere are reflective we should not be able to see objects through nor earth would be visible from space.

7. Man disturbed the most cooling system of nature, the rain cycle by covering the land area thus reducing evaporation of water, deforestation reducing transpiration, another form of evaporatiion and creating vast stretch of dry land, especially deserts – reduced frequency of the rain cycle is causing GW and CC. Rain means colder environment and all other problems due to climate change are also related to rain only, rain cycle has nothing to do with gases but heat and evaporaton.

8.If the GW was due to GH effect of gaases, climate should be warm consistently not cold during night and winter; and uniform or warmer higher the altitude because of the fluid properties (freely moving molecules) of the air.

B2. ASSUMING REGULAR RAIN CYCLE OCCURS BY EVAPORATION OF WATER FROM SEA/ PONDS/ LAKES/ OR RIVERS. (- IMPOSSIBLE).

This assumption made us suffer from climate change.

Evaporation only from the surface of the earth can make regular rain cycle possible. As for example, we have always rain in Kathmandu at the end of 'HOLI'. the water festival. This year also we have the festival on March 19 and 20, 2011 (chaitra 5 and 6, 2067 BS). Let us all wait and see. We should have rain or at least overcast cloud.(# it rained yesterday in Kathmandu,Sunday 20 March,at about 6pm. last year also rained at about the same time of the second day of the Holi).

Rain cycle needs new explanations. Rain cycle controls our climate not by any gas. Had we been explaining that rain cycle occurs by the evaporation of water from the land surface of the earth we would have never faced the climate change, never spoiled the arable lands, would have developed settlement differently, never faced scarcity of water or climate change related problems, never have reduced snow on the mountains and poles, never have occurred the problems of deforestation, even deserts would have been unknown, thus never had to learn about climate change, sea water level would have never risen etc. Now at least we have learned about climate change and what controls it due to the wrong eplanations of 'rain cycle'. Mass of water does not heat up as easily or quickly as mass of earth surface gets heated to evaporate water needed for rain cycle. We can't walk bare-footed on paved places during sunny summer day. Ocean does not heat up that hot. ocean is also as old as this earth and have not been heated in 4 billion years.



Correct explanations of rain cycle will leave the land surface exposed, not covered. Construction of houses or similar structures will be above the ground on the pillars of concrete or trees. Drainage system would not be necessary. Sulabh system for toilets - two soak pits and thus manures are also available. Other used water can just flow on the open ground underneath the houses or other constructions.



C3. BLAMING CFC FOR OZONE DEPLETION. (-TOO HEAVY AND SCARCE).

Better scientific explanation is that the millions of jet plane flights consume Oxygen of the OZONE LAYER. Millions of jet plane flights consume too much of oxygen from the layer. So, to save OZONE ban jets to fly higher than 25000 feet. Nobody can make hole in the air. Has any body?

D4. APPLYING PRINCIPLE OF STANDING STILL WATER COLUMN TO RUNNING WATER COLUMN FOR HARNESSING MINIMUM HYDROPOWER AND, BLAMING WATER FOR POWER CUT OR POWER CRISIS.
(see section IIb and VI also)
This wrong application of the theory made power crisis in the world. We can harness unlimited hydropower by installing turbines in series. Earth is blessed with unlimited hydropower.

THE FOLLOWING VIDEOS SHOW THE METHOD OF INSTALLING TURBINES IN SERIES




CONVENTIONAL METHOD OF SUPPLYING WATER TO TURBINES



SUPPLYING WATER TO TURBINES IN SERIES



BLOWING AIR TO TURBINES IN SERIES



emails: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk,dev.dangol@yahoo.com,indrdev2000@yahoo.co.uk

II. SOLUTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND POWER CRISIS
(Reward NRs. 100,000/= One Lakh to First who can prove wrong)
Dr. Dev Bahadur Dongol
(In The Rising Nepal: Overturning Global Warming; 25 June 2009 and Don’t Blame Gases For Green House Effect; 24 September 2009 and By Mark W. Hendrickson; Don’t Treat Co2 As A Pollutant, 25 June 2009)

What we know:

a. Related to climate change – CLIMATE CHANGE DUE TO GASES IS IMPOSSIBLE:

SOLUTION TO Climate Change

1. Green house is made using transparent solid materials – plastics or glasses. We cannot build a structure using fluids. So gases can’t form a green house, thus no GHE due to gases.

2. The higher the altitude our climatic atmosphere, troposphere, is colder.

3. At 30,000 temperature is minus 58 degree centigrade.

4. Heat transmission – always higher to lower temp. Heat reached upper region of the troposphere cannot come back to hotter places below.

5. Fluids (liquids and gases) by convection method of heat transmission deliver heat from hotter to colder zone. Thus air helps the earth to cool down. This process goes on all the time nonstop but the process is not good enough to cool down the sun heated earth as the gases carry least amount of heat.

6. Troposphere is a homogenous mixture of gases, not layered. As the air of the atmosphere is always moving up and down, to and fro, the freely moving molecules can’t be layered. Had it been layered co2 would be at the bottom of the atmosphere i.e. just above the earth’s surface. Then we are dead. We need o2 to be alive.

7. Air is a perfect transparent medium after space. It does not reflect light so we don’t see air. Opaque materials reflect light so we see them. If the air is opaque? We wouldn’t need eyes. So there is no way for gases in the higher altitude to send heat back.

8. Closed room gets heated uniformly but upper part is warmer as hot air goes up. So if GHE due to gases were possible our atmosphere would be hotter at higher altitude.

9. a. It becomes cold immediately when it rains. b. Annual frequency of rain is decreasing. Reduced frequency of nature’s effective cooling system, the rain cycle, is causing the ‘global warming’. Or, it could not be cooler as it would with more rain.

10. Rain cycle is related to heat and evaporation only and no other factors. Rain can occur without plants; though it lets water to go in the atmosphere by transpiration and hold water on earth by not allowing soil to dry quickly as surface without plants. Evaporation for humidifying the air is not good enough for rain cycle. Evaporation for regular rain cycle can’t be from sea, lakes or rivers (4 billion yrs on not warm enough) but from land surface. Why not more rain cycle nowadays? Warmer, sea surface area and temp increasing (favorable for evaporation)? Half portion of the earth is always exposed to the sun and they do not vary temp seasonally as land surface does daily. Human settlement is reducing evaporation from land areas by covering it with houses, roads, pavements etc; deserts, and deforestation etc. Evaporation of water can deliver maximum quantity of heat and reduce the temperature. So rain cycle needs new explanation.

11. Land surface changes temperature even on daily basis – hot during day time and cold during night (or seasonally as well) unlike sea or lakes or river water (they are almost consistent even in 4 billion years).

Thus global warming or climate change due to gases is impossible. No one has explained the reason nor can be explained scientifically. Instead of warming, gases are cooling the earth by convection method of heat transmission naturally and man has no control over the process.

Causes and solution: by keeping land surface areas always wet as used to be in old days, the evaporation of water will be consistent and thus rain cycle will be regular. It is an easy job for mankind now and it is possible only till we have snow on mountains. At the end of holy festival we always had rain (in the evening). Covering of land surface areas by human is reducing the evaporation. We are doing this mistake because we studied that rain cycle occurs from the evaporation of water from sea or lakes or rivers. Regular rain means colder weather, snow on mountains, rich vegetation/ balanced ecosystem, recharging ground water and eventually reducing sea water level. Climate change problems are all related to water or rain cycle. Without regular rain cycle problems related to water can’t be solved.

Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that we have climate change because we are studying the process of rain cycle wrong way scientifically.

b. SOLUTION TO POWER CRISIS (we cannot blame water)

(New Ways to Harness Hydropower; The rising Nepal, 2009 March 14 and धेरै सस्तोमा जलविद्द्युत; गोरखापत्र, २३ जेष्ठ २०६६)

We can harness many times more hydropower from already installed hydropower installations by adding more turbines in series. The application of standing still water column property to running water condition has been a blunder in hydropower engineering. At present we are harnessing minimum hydropower. In a standing still water column pressure effect of the water column varies according to the height. But in a running water column the pressure effect is uniform throughout the water column. (Bernoulli Theory). Therefore by installing multiple turbines in series we can run all of them uniformly. (See demonstrations).

Demonstration: (see video clip) water meter is a miniature form of turbine. We can install many of them in series and run all of them uniformly. We use force of gravitation to run water in hydropower. So it is more appropriate to say g-power than say hydropower. We cannot reduce nor block nor shift force of gravitation; it is always there at a given point.

Dr. Dev Bahadur Dongol email: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk Mobile-9841 647 393
Resi: 4 25 30 45 Shahid Shukra Galli, House no.24 Teku , Kathmandu - 12
Blog: devbahadurdongol.blogspot.com

III. जलवायु परिवर्तन र उर्जा संकटको समाधान

(गलत ठहर गर्ने पहिलोलाई रु. एक लाख पुरस्कार)

हामीलाई थाहा भएको कुरा

क. जलवायु संबन्धि – (ग्यासको कारणले जलवायु परिवर्तन असम्भव)
१. हरियो घर (green house) बनाउन ठोस पारदर्शि बस्तु – प्लाष्टीक वा शीशाको आवश्यक छ । ग्यास अथवा हवाव्दारा कुनै पनि ढाँचा वनाउन सकिंदैन । (ग्यास व्दारा green house वन्दैन, सोको प्रभाव पर्दैन।)
२. तापको प्रसारण – वढी तापक्रमवाट कम तिर, तातोवाट चिसो तिर मात्र हुन्छ।
३. द्रव्य पदार्थ, तरल र हवा वा ग्यासले ताप प्रसारणको संवाहन विधि (convection method of heat transmission) व्दारा तापलाई माथि ओसारेर चिसो पार्ने वा सेलाऊने कार्य गर्छ ।
४. मौसमी वायु मण्डल जति जति माथि गयो उति उति वढी चिसो हुन्छ ।
५. वायु मण्डल ग्यासको समान मिश्रण हो तह तह छैन, तह तह भएर बस्नै सक्तैन, भएमा CO2¬¬ तल बस्छ ।
६. हवा पूर्ण पारदर्शि (transparent) भएकोले परावर्तन गर्दैन र त्यसैले ग्यास वस्तुलाई देख्दैनौं, परावर्तन गर्ने वस्तु अपारदर्शि (opaque) हुन्छ त्यसैले अपारदर्शि वस्तुलाई हामी देख्छौं ।
७. बन्द कोठा भित्र एकनासले तातो हुन्छ । माथि तिर झन वढी तातो हुन्छ । हवा वा ग्यासको ताप प्रसारणको संवाहन विधि (convection method of heat transmission) अनुसार हवा तातो भए पछि माथि जान्छ ।
८. क. वर्षाद भयो कि तापक्रम घट्छ वा चिसो हुन्छ ।ख. बर्ष भरी बर्षादको क्रम घट्दो छ ।
९ वर्षाद चक्रको संबन्ध ताप र वाष्पिकरणसंग मात्र छ, अरु कारणसंग छैन । (चिसै भएकोले समुद्र, ताल वा नदीवाट वाष्पीकरण भएर नियमित बर्षाद हुनै सक्दैन, सो हुने भए अहिले (गर्मी वढेको, समुद्रको तापक्रम र पानी वढेकोले) झन वढी बर्षाद हुनु पर्ने – वर्षाद चक्रको व्याख्या नयाँ तरिकाले हुनु पर्छ। चार अरब बर्षमा नतातेको ती पानीको पिण्ड मौसम अनुसार तात्ने र चिसो हुने हुँदैन । वाष्पीकरण कम गर्ने वा छेक्ने काम हामीले गरेकोले बर्षाद कम भयो – मानिसको बसोबास, वन जंगल फडानि र मरुभूमि करणले गर्दा ।
१०. समुद्र, ताल वा नदीको पानी भन्दा पृथ्वीको सतह मौसम अनुसार/ दिन दिनै धेरै तातो र चिसो भै रहन्छ। (अत: जलवायु परिवर्तन ग्यासको कारणले भएको हैन, हुनै सक्तैन – हुन्छ भनेर पुष्टी गर्ने कुनै पनि वैग्यानिक आधार वा कारण छैन र कसैले पनि प्रस्तुत गरेको छैन र गर्न पनि सकिंदैन ।)

हामीलाई थाहा भएको कुरा
ख. भएकै संरचनामा टर्बाईनहरु थपेर गुणात्मक वढी जलविद्द्युत प्राप्त गर्ने संबन्धि
१. नबगेको पानीको स्तम्भमा उचाई अनुसार चाप हुन्छ । तर एकनासको पाईप भित्र बगिरहेको पानीको चाप उचाई अनुसार हँदैन, पानीको स्तम्भ भरी नै चाप एकनास हुन्छ ।(Bernoulli Theory)। (अत: पानी बगिरहेको एउटै पाईपमा एक भन्दा वढी टर्बाईनहरु क्रमश: (series) तरिकामा लहरै जडान गरी सबै टर्बाईनहरु समान रुपमा संचालन गर्न सकिन्छ – प्रयोग प्रदर्शन हेर्नु होला।)
२. जति जे सुकै खसाले पनि भू-आकर्षण बल भनेको घट्दैन, घटाउन नै सकिंदैन । छेक्न सकिंदैन, र यता उता पन्छाउन पनि सकिंदैन ।
३. जल विद्द्युत आयोजनामा पानी खसाल्न भू-आकर्षण बलको उपयोग हुन्छ । (अत: जल-विद्द्युत भन्नु भन्दा भू-बिद्द्युत भन्नु वढी उपयुक्त हुन्छ ।)
Dr. Dev Bahadur Dongol email: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk Mobile-9841 647 393
Blog: devbahadurdongol.blogspot.com

IV. DON’T BLAME GASES SCIENTIFICALLY IT IS WRONG TO BLAME GASES FOR GLOBAL WARMING/ CLIMATE CHANGE – 8 scientific REASONS:

1. THERE IS NOT A SINGLE SCIENTIFIC REASON TO SUPPORT THE BASELESS ACCUSATION/ ASSUMPTION. 1 Transparent solid materials like plastics or glasses are used for making greenhouse. Gases as fluids with freely moving molecules can’t form green house. So, green house effect due to gases is impossible.

2. If the GW was due to GH effect, climate should be warm consistently not cold during night and winter; and uniform or warmer higher the altitude because of the fluid properties (freely moving molecules) of the air.

3. Light passes through perfect transparent materials like gases. So gases are not visible. Gases don’t bounce heat back. Reflection of light makes us an object visible.

4. Climatic atmosphere (Troposphere) is colder higher the altitude, not uniformly heated as accused.

5. Heat transmission principle – higher to lower temperature, so heat from high up can’t come down.

6. By Convection method of heat transmission gases are helping the earth to cool down.

7. Climatic atmosphere is not layered but a homogenous mixture of gases as they are moving all the time and thoroughly mixed. Had it been layered the bottom layer of the atmosphere just above the earth’s surface would be CO2 and animals wouldn’t have survived.

8. Man disturbed another very effective cooling system of nature. We caused to reduce the frequency of the rain cycle. And, it is causing GW and CC. Rain means colder environment and all other problems due to climate change are also related to rain only. Rain cycle has nothing to do with gases or any other factor but heat and evaporation. (We have explained the rain cycle wrong way causing the CC and GW). Wrong explanation of rain cycle made us do the mistake that reduces the frequency of rain cycle resulting the GW and CC

b. ONLY HYDROPOWER/ NO THERMAL/ NO NUCLEAR. Now-a-days we are tapping only minimum hydropower in the world from the present hydropower plants because of the wrong application of scientific theory. Correction of the mistake can give us unlimited hydropower even from the existing hydropower plants by only adding more turbines in series along the same water supplying pipe without breaking water column.

c. EARTH IS BLESSED WITH UNLIMITED HYDROPOWER.

BLUNDER - Applying fluid property of standing still water column to running water condition is a blunder in the hydropower engineering. This is the reason we run only one turbine by supplying water by one separate penstock pipe.

HARNESSING UNLIMITED HYDROPOWER - But multiple turbines can be installed in series along the same one water running uniform pipe and run all of them independently, thus harness unlimited hydropower. Since we use gravitational force to run water that rotates turbines, it is more appropriate to call Gravity Power rather than Hydropower. The force of Gravity cannot be reduced nor blocked nor shifted or interrupted; so it is available consistently at a given point.

Dev Bahadur Dongol, Ph.D. Mobile: 9841 647 393 email: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk
Blog for Details: devbahadurdongol.blogspot.com

V. Dear all with love,

Scientifically Ground Free Houses Mean Nature Friendly By ground free houses I mean houses built above ground level on pillars. Pillars may be made of concrete or that of timbers, supported by other means. By our local terms they are called ‘kandey ghar’ ‘काँडे घर’ which are still seen in our villages. For some it may be something like ‘machan’ ‘मचान’ (altar) high above the ground built by hunters. (see attached pics for houses I mean). Houses built above ground can be a miracle to the living world. It will not ruin our agriculture system; stop climate change related problems, will not require drainage system for toilets and used water, ground below the houses will always be irrigated/ remain moist, ground water will be recharged all the time with used water by natural process of treatment, no shortage of water and so on.
1. Agriculture is not disturbed significantly.

2. Evaporation of water from land surfaces is not disturbed.
(visit: devbahadurdongol.blogspot.com for details)

no climate change related problems - global warming, disturbed ecosystem, exhausting ground water and snow on mountains, vanishing vegetation, reduced frequency of rain cycle (needs new explanations for hydrogelic process), sea water level rise etc.

3. No drainage system is required
a. only pit latrines will be necessary, so there will be no risk of polluting rivers or other places.
b. enough natural manures will be available from the pits from time to time after a suitable periods (2 years).
c. used water on land: irrigation, recharge ground water through natural process, keep top soil always moist for undisturbed evaporation from land surfaces of the earth. SO LET US BUILD HOUSES ONLY ABOVE GROUND to keep nature as it should be – comfortable for the living world.
#1 in a country like ours we must supply drinking water in containers. (May be for 10 litres/ Re). or manage 100% safe drinking water tankers in every nook and corner of the town. At least I don’t see any possibility of supplying piped safe drinking water in near future. But we can supply clean water for other purposes like washing. I am afraid, we may never be able to develop system for supplying piped safe drinking water.
#2 we have suffered water problems because of the climate change. We changed the climate system because we disrupted the rain cycle system. This happened just because we have been studying rain cycle wrong way – rain occurs due to the evaporation of water from sea; now let us correct it by understanding rain cycle occurs from the evaporation of water from the land surface and sea breezes work as booster to add rain. Sea water humid air needs to come over land to rise up to the height where it can condense to precipitate as rain.
#3 Nature has the most wonderful system of harvesting water through rain cycle. Snow on mountains and poles, underground water, keeping earth’s land surface moist, raising living world, ponds and lakes, for some time running water etc are the examples of nature’s way of storing water on land. This is possible only when the rain cycle is not disturbed.
So maintaining the ‘rain cycle’ is the one and only way to save the living world. (visit: devbahadurdongol.blogspot.com for details)
(For bizarre houses: http://www.oddee.com/item_96556.aspx)

























TURBINES IN SERIES PRELUDE:

APPLICATION OF THE FLUID PROPERTIES OF STANDING STILL WATER COLUMN IN THE RUNNING WATER CONDITION IS A SCIENTIFIC MISTAKE, AND IT IS GIVING US ONLY MINIMUM HYDROPOWER.

1. STANDING STILL WATER COLUMN VS. RUNNING WATER COLUMN ACCORDING TO THE HEIGHT. UNIFORM THROUGH OUT

2. In running water column HEAD HEIGHT EFFECT DUE TO WATER COLUMN IS NOT ONLY DUE TO THE WATER COLUMN ABOVE A GIVEN POINT BUT ALSO THE WATER COLUMN BELOW THE GIVEN POINT.

3. INLET AND OUT LET FOR WATER IN THE TURBINE SHOULD BE SAME SIZE. AT PRESENT IT IS NOT.

4. TURBINES ARE TO BE INSTALLED ALONG THE UNIFORM PENSTOCK PIPE, FROM THE INTAKE TO DISCHARGE POINTS.

VI. 24 of 24 posts TURBINES DON’T DECREASE POWER OF RUNNING WATER
Dev Bahadur Dongol, Ph.D.

E-mail:

dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk or indrdev2000@yahoo.co.uk

Applying the property of standing still water column to a running water condition has been a blunder in hydropower engineering. the correction of the mistake can give us unlimited hydropower.
A change in installation system of turbines in hydropower plants can contribute to harness many times more clean energy, the hydroelectricity than done at present by conventional system, and for correcting climate change. Water Supply System in Conventional Hydropower Installations does not consider the basic principles of fluid nature of water and the characteristics of the gravitational force of the Earth. Had it considered them, water supply system to a number of turbines installed would have been in series by using water enough for running only one turbine. The present system of installing one turbine would be the last one after which no turbine will be installed. In other words, a lot of turbines can be installed between the present installed turbines and the water intake points. This is possible because Turbines are not made to decrease power of water running through water supplying pipe, provided the topography and landscape are selected suitably. Only runoff type of water supply system in hydropower installations would have been common practice, making the projects far cheaper than present cost.

a. Existing Practice

Water is allowed to fall down from a desired height to rotate the runner of a turbine (The only purpose of dropping water), which in turn rotates a device inside the generator that can generate electricity. The only power used actually is the Gravitational Force of the Earth. If there are more than one turbine, then water is supplied by separate pipes independently, one pipe to each turbine. So we need a lot of water to maintain constant flow of water. It may be called Parallel system of supplying water to turbines. This is the universal practice nowadays. Nothing is consumed. Water comes out as it was before entering the turbines. The force due to Gravity is also not decreased. Only water is moved from a greater height to a lower height due to the continuous pulling force of the Earth. Features of gravitational force of the Earth It is unlimited, uninterrupted, never exhausted, never used up, always acting all the time on every possible mass to smallest particles continuously. The force cannot be shielded, as magnetic force and light can be blocked. Fluid property of water Pressure is transmitted equally in all direction. It is incompressible. Takes the shape of its container. Behaviors of water column when standing still and running a. Still water column The pressure due to still water column depends upon the height of the water column. The greater the height of the water-column the higher is the pressure. We can’t harness the power of water when it is standing still. But we calculate the power by using the height as one of the parameters. Then we decide the size of the water-supplying pipe for the flow of water available. But we need to run water to tap its energy. The running water column behaves totally different from the water column that is standing still.

b. Running water column
Here the pressure due to water column does not depend according to the height. the height difference between the intake and the discharge points act as the 'head height' effective at every point throughout the uniform running water column. The pressure through out the running water column is uniform. The flow of water is also uniform at any given point of the running water column. The same amount of water entered comes out from the out let. The velocity of water through out the water column is also uniform. So the power of water available at any point of the entire water column is also constant while water is running. The Breakthrough - Changing Water Supply System Considering the basic fluid properties of water and the characteristics of the Gravitational Force of the Earth (‘g’), a number of turbines can be installed in series along a single water-supplying penstock pipe of hydropower plants.The force of Gravity cannot be reduced nor blocked nor shifted or interrupted; so it is available consistently at a given point. By doing so the performance of each individual turbine does not decrease. Established physical theories of both the aspects support the idea 100%. They are the two aspects of science that are applied to rotate the runner of the turbine by dropping water from a desired height. The only source of energy used to run turbines in the hydropower plants is the ‘g’ (the gravitational force of the Earth). So multifold more electricity is possible by installing turbines in series along a single penstock pipe. Presence of one or more or none turbines in the single water supplying pipe with running water column makes no difference whatsoever. Installed turbines allow the same flow of water as it flows before they are installed. Therefore the turbines don’t decrease power of running water. This is so because of the behaviors of the gravitational force of the Earth. BELIEVE IT OR NOT it is THE WAY THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE of the Earth (‘g’) WORKS. We can observe, experience and explain its basic properties without using any mathematical expressions. So our Earth is blessed with unlimited source of hydropower. Pressure due to the entire column of water is transmitted to all direction equally, a fluid property, here in this case only in the direction of the flowing water. It is not so with a column of water that is standing still. So we cannot harness electricity if the water is not running. The behaviors of water when flowing and standing still are totally different. When all the turbines installed in series are eventually in full motion with the same velocity as that of flowing water- due to the action of ‘g’, the pressure effect of the entire column of water is also maintained uniform through out the entire column of water that is flowing. It is not reduced because of the constant action of ‘g’. It should be so for a given penstock pipe, since the same height of the water column is there, the velocity and the volume of water discharged are also uniform through out the entire column of the running water inside the pipe, as ‘g’ is acting all the time, continuously and uninterrupted on every molecule of water. So no factors change before and after one or more turbines are installed. Weight of the water column flowing down below the turbine will also have the pressure effect as the weight of the water column above the turbine will have. It will be the ‘PULLING’ force (it is not available with the water column that is standing still); whereas the water column above the given point will behave as the ‘PUSHING’ force due to its weight; both the water columns due to their respective weights will act in the same direction. So the whole column of water acts as one single force at any point between the two ends. The factors of power for a given column of flowing water (volume of water, force of gravity, the height of water column, and the velocity of water combined) are constant until running water is available. It is the only water that can become exhausted or stopped, when one of the factors becomes zero the energy available will also be zero. Turbines are not made to reduce the flow of water. Running down water through a pipe is just creating a favorable condition to canalize unlimited gravitational force of the Earth to harness type of energy we need. Conversion of parallel to series water supply system in places where two or more generators are already installed under one powerhouse scheme also can be done very easily and quickly. It is just planning and plumber’s job. Implications Besides harnessing many folds hydropower, the series system of installing turbines can contribute significantly to correct climate change within two years. The end of the water-supplying pipe can be the places where we want water to have delivered. With their applications, water supply can be remarkably economical for running many turbines and water can also be available for other purposes like drinking, irrigations, and entertainment and scattering water in the deserted places and deserts for extensive evaporation of water etc., thus boost rainfall to correct climate change and overturn the global warming. Reviving rain cycle means cold weather, adding snow on the mountains and poles, recharge ground water and eventually reduce the sea water level. The end of the water-supplying pipe can be places where water is needed for drinking, irrigation or watering vast deserted lands or deserts or entertainment etc. So water has to be flowing non-stop all the time. This way of water supply system will also solve the problem of drinking water as well as irrigation need. We can drain water from any higher places to lower places along the road or convenient places and discharge in places where it is essential. So we get more greenery that will consume carbon dioxide of our atmosphere, eased life for animals as well, and getting electricity in the much cheaper way, that means help to reduce the use of petroleum products. the following video shows the method of installing turbines in series.



Another way of harnessing hydropower: using water current instead of wind We have been harnessing or tapping (or at least trying to tap) electricity through wind power as well. The velocity of wind fluctuates too much, directions change unpredictably. So instead of chasing wind, it will be wiser to use water current for the same purpose by using big wheels to rotate turbines by very fast flowing water current in a country like Nepal. We can manage water to flow to our convenient places. We need to develop or improve existing technology for this purpose. It may not be difficult to rotate the axle of a generator 1000times/minute by this technique combined with the gear system. The speed is good enough to generate electricity. Water can be discharged to places desired for climate friendly purposes as mentioned above earlier[i] [i]

I thank the LORD for revealing the breakthrough new explanation through me. I .want to name it ASTHA POWER-g SYSTEM. E-mail:

dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk

E-DISCUSSION FINALLY: SUGGESTIONS WHOEVER caries the work further encouraged by this e-discussion I hope the person will keep in mind the following points. I hope you have also gone through my previous 2 posts. 1. Stop wrong concepts like –1. Vegetation is necessary to save Himalayan snow, 2. Rain cycle occurs due to the evaporation of water from the seas. 3. Snow is melting because of the global warming. (snow melted during cold climate and during winter also it melts. The problem is that snow is disappearing on the mountains because it is not added regularly as used to. Snow on the Himalaya can be added regularly only by regular frequent rain cycle and no other ways. The rain cycle has to do only with the evaporation of water from the land surface of the earth. Himalayas were formed millions of years before life appeared on earth. Sea was formed before the Himalayas or snow appeared on the earth and has never be heated as much as it is necessary to raise water vapour to the height where it can condense and precipitate as rain. This is possible only on land.) 2. Rain cycle: the one and only way of Nature for water harvesting system and water treatment process. Snow on the mountains, underground water, keeping soil always moist, water holding capacity of soil, humidity of the air, living world (plants and animals also hold water 75% of its body weight etc are the examples of nature’s way to retain water on land and they are all meant for living world. 3. By covering the arable land area mankind Disrupted the rain cycle causing the climate change. Keeping the land surface always moist is the only solution to stop climate change as the condition is must for rain cycle. Houses built on pillars leaving the ground free as much as possible will be boons for maintaining comfortable climate like in old times.

THANK YOU E-DISCUSSION GROUP AND PROMOTERS. PLEASE DON’T FORGET TO VISIT MY BLOG
for details: devbahadurdongol.blogspot.com
If you wish to give me a call, my mobile no. is 9841 647 393

The following write up is in Nepali language

हाइड्रोलजिक प्रोसेस: हामीहरुले वर्षाद चक्रवारे गलत धारणाको ब्याख्या गर्दै आएका छौँ, जस्को फलस्वरुप जलवायु परिवर्तनको मार भोग्नु परेको छ। नियमित वर्षाद हुनको लागि चाहिने पानीको वाष्पिकरण समुद्र, वा ताल वा नदीबाट हुनै पाऊँदैन । ती ठाँउको पानी वाष्पिकरण हुनलाई चाहिने जति तातो हुनै पाउँदैन । पाँच खरब वर्ष भै सकेको सागर अहिले सम्म पनि तातेको छैन । २ डिग्रि तातो हुँदा पनि जलबायु परिवर्तनको असरले संसारमा खल बल मचाएको छ भने वाष्पिकरणको लागि चाहिने तापक्रम सम्म सागरहरु तातो हुन पृथ्विको सतहमा सवै खरानि भै सकेमा पनि सम्भावना छैन । मनसुनि बादल पनि समुद्रको पानि वाष्पिकरण भएर बन्नै नसक्ने कुरो हो । सो बादल पृथ्विकै सतहको पानी वाष्पिकरण भएर नै समुद्रको माथितिर हवाको सम्वाहन तरिकाले सर्दै गएर जम्मा हुनु वाहेक अरु उपाय छैन । १ वर्षाद चक्र गलत तरिकाले ब्याख्या गरिएकोले जलवायु परिवर्तन भएको हो । २। वर्षाद चक्र गलत तरिकाले ब्याख्या गर्दै आयौँ । ३। वर्षाद चक्रको लागि नयाँ ब्याख्याको आवश्यक छ । सागरहरुको पानी वाष्पिकरण भएर वर्षाद चक्र कायम हुने भै दिएको भए अहिले झन वढी वर्षाद हुनु पर्ने हो किन भने वाष्पिकरणको लागि आवश्यक तापक्रम र सागरहरुको सतह दुबै बढ्दै छन् । एक बाल्टिन पानी भुईँमा छरिदिऊँ र अर्को एक वाल्टिन पानी त्यतिकै राखि दियौँ छरेको पानी एक दुई घण्टामा नै सुकि हाल्छ तर त्यतिकै छोडेको वाल्टिनको पानी १ महिनामा पनि सुक दैन । वालटिनकको छेत्र फल भित्र सागरमा लाखौँ वालटिन पानी हुन्छ । अत सागरको पानी वाष्पिकरण भएर हुन्छ भन्नु बेकारको कुरा हो । ‍१ पानीको वाष्पिकरण हुनको लागि धेरै नै तापको आवश्यक पर्छ । सबै भन्दा बढी ताप धारण गर्न सक्ने पदार्थ पानी हो । एक गा|म पानीलाई १ डिगी| तापक|म वढाउन १ क्यालोरि ताप चाहिन्छ । १०० डिगी| पुगे पछि उम्लन्छ । उम्लेको एक गा|म पानीलाई वाफमा परिणत गर्न फेरि अर्को ५६० क्यालोरि तापको आवश्यक पर्छ । त्यसैले वर्षाद हुँदा तुरुन्तै ठण्डा हुन्छ । २। वर्षादले तापक्रमलाई नियन्त्रणमा राख्छ, शायद १ देखि २५ डिग्रि सम्म । जाडो धेरै भएको वेला पानी पर्दा कम जाडो हुन्छ र धेरै गर्मिमा पानी पर्दा ठण्डा हुन्छ । ३। सूर्यको ताप पाउना साथ पृथ्विको सतहको तापक|म छिटै वढ्छ, पानीलाई जस्तो समय लाग्दैन । मानिसले गरेका चार गल्तिहरु विद्दयुत कटौतिको दोष पानीलाई दिन मिल्दैन। । नबगेको बेलाको पानीको सिध्दान्तलाई वगेको वेलाको अवस्थामा लागु गरेकोले विद्युतको सँकटमा परेका छौँ । असिमित जलविद्युतको वरदान पृथ्विलाई प्राप्त छ । जल-बायु परिवर्तनको दोष ग्यासलाई दिन मिल्दैन । ग्यसलाई दोष दिएर हल्लै हल्लामा लागेर सवैलाई उल्लु बनाउने काममा लागेका छन सो कुरालाई फैलाएर । उक्त कुरा कुनै पनि वैग्यानिक आधार व्याख्यमा गर्न सकिँदैन । ५ वटा वैग्यानिक कारणले सो अनुमान, हल्ला, गफ, कल्पना वा लहलहैका कुरा हुन भन्ने सिद्ध हुन्छ । ओजोन घटनाको दोष सिएफसिलाई दिन मिल्दैन । असम्भव । सिएफसि अति गह्रुँगो र वायुमण्डमा नगण्य रुपमा रहेकोले ३०,००० तीस हजार फिट माथि पुग्नै सक्दैन - सो कुरा पनि हल्ला मात्र हो । जमिनबाट वाष्पीकरण भएर नियमित बर्षाद हुन्छ । समुद्र, ताल, वा नदिवाट वाष्पिकरण भएर नियमित वर्षाद हुँदैन, यसो हुन्छ भनेर गल्ती गरेकोले नै जलवायु परिवर्तनको मारमा परेका छौँ । वर्षाद चक्रको नयाँ व्याख्याको आवश्यक छ । विद्दयुत कटौतिको दोष पानीलाई दिन मिल्दैन। । नबगेको बेलाको पानीको सिध्दान्तलाई वगेको वेलाको अवस्थामा लागु गरेकोले विद्युतको सँकटमा परेका छौँ । असिमित जलविद्युतको वरदान पृथ्विलाई प्राप्त छ । जल-बायु परिवर्तनको दोष ग्यासलाई दिन मिल्दैन । ओजोन घटनाको दोष सिएफसिलाई दिन मिल्दैन । जमिनबाट वाष्पीकरण भएर नियमित बर्षाद हुन्छ । समुद्र, ताल, वा नदिवाट वाष्पिकरण भएर नियमित वर्षाद हुँदैन, यसो हुन्छ भनेर गल्ती गरेकोले नै जलवायु परिवर्तनको मारमा परेका छौँ । emails: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk,dev.dangol@yahoo.com,indrdev2000@yahoo.co.uk

this write up is in Nepali language

जलवायु परिवर्तनको कारण र समाधान

डा. देव बहादुर डंगोल


हाल सम्म कसैले पनि जलवायु परिवर्तन हुनाको कारण प्रस्तुत वा व्याख्या गरेको छैन । तर मान्न चाहिँ मानेका छन् कि मानिस कै कारणले वा गल्तिले यसो भएको हो । दोष भने ग्यासलाई दिँदै आएका छन् । यहाँ जलवायु परिवर्तन हुनाको कारण र निवारण वारे वैग्यानिक विश्लेषण प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । जलवायु परिवर्तनको असर न्युनिकरण गर्न वा यस्को असरवाट वच्ने उपायहरु तत्कालको लागि आवश्यक छन् तर निवारण चाहिँ होइन । औषधि उपचार गर्नु भन्दा रोग लाग्न नदिनु नै असल मानिन्छ । त्यसैले जलवायु परिवर्तनलाई रोक्नु नै वेश हुने छ । यसलाई पुरानो अवस्थामा नै पु-याउन सकिन्छ । सर्वमान्य पाँच वटा आधारभूत वैग्यानिक सिध्दान्तहरुको आधारमा ग्यासको कारणले जलवायु परिवर्तन हुनै सक्तैन । जलवायु परिवर्तन भन्नाले तापक्रम वृध्दि र वर्षाद दुई कुरालाई बुझ्ने गर्दछौँ । वैग्यानिक हिसावले ती दुवै पछ्यको कुनै पनि ग्यास सँग केहि पनि सम्बन्ध नै छैन । ग्यासले तापक्रम वृध्दि हैन बरु ताप प्रसारणको सिध्दान्त र ताप प्रसारणको सँवाहन तरिकाले पृथ्विलाई चिसो पार्ने वा सेलाऊने काम गरी रहेको छ । ग्यासले गर्दा तापक्रम वृध्दि भएको भन्नु एकदमै अवैग्यानिक फजुल कुरा हो । र, नियमित वर्षाद भनेको पृथ्विको सतहवाट पानी वाष्पीकरण भएर मात्र हुन्छ, अरु कुनै पनी कारण सँग यो प्रक्रियाको केही पनी सम्वन्ध नै छैन । समुद्र वा ताल वा नदीवाट पानी वाष्पीकरण भएकोवाट नियमित वर्षाद हुनै सक्दैन, त्यसो हुने भए अहिले तापक्रम वृध्दि भएको र समुद्र फैलिएको वेला झन् वढी वर्षाद हुने थियो । १. ताप प्रसारणको सिद्धान्त: ताप जहिले पनि वढीवाट कम तापक्रम भएको ठाउँ तिर मात्र सर्छ । त्यस्को उल्टो कमवाट वढी तापक्रम तिर ताप कहिल्यै प्रारण हुँदैन । वायु मण्डलको माथि चिसो ठाउँमा पुगेको ताप तल गरम ठाउँ पृथ्वि तिर कदापि आउँदैन । २. ताप प्रसारणका तरिकाहरु: ताप प्रसारणका तीनवटा विधिहरु विकिरण: यस विधिद्वारा सवै दिसा तिर ताप आफै जान्छ । कुनै पनि माध्यमको आवश्य पर्दैन । ताप प्रसारण भै रहेको बेला बाटोमा भएको वस्तुहरुले ताप ग्रहण गर्छन्, वर्षादमा पानीका थोपाहरु टाऊकोमा परे जस्तो । यसै विधिद्वारा नै हामीले सूर्यवाट ताप प्राप्त गर्द छौँ । सन्चालन: यो विधिद्वारा ताप प्रसारण सुचालक ठोस वस्तुमा मात्र हुन्छ । पाएको तापलाई सँगैका अणुहरुलाई दिँदै एक पछि अर्को अणुहरु तताउँदै ताप सर्दै जान्छ । हामी लाममा उभिएर एकले अर्कोलाई दिँदै सामान ओसारे जस्तै कुनै धातुलाई एक छेउमा तताउँदा अर्को छेउ पनि विस्तारै तातेर आउँछ । सम्बाहन: यो तरिकाले ताप प्रसारण द्रब्य पदार्थ (झोल वा ग्यास)मा मात्र हुन्छ । ती वस्तुहरुमा अणहरु स्वतन्त्र रुपमा चल्न सक्छन् । ताप पाए पछि तिनीहरुका अणुहरु माथि तिर जान्छन् र माथि चिसो ठाउँमा पुगे पछि ताप प्रसारण गर्छ र चिसो अणुहरु तल तिर झर्छन् । यो तरिका एक ठाउँवाट अर्को ठाउँमा ओसारेर सामान राख्दै गरे जस्तै हो । हाम्रो वायु मण्डलमा पनि यस्तै तरिकाले ताप प्रसारण निरन्तर भै रहेको छ त्यसैले दिन भरि तातेको पृथ्वि रातमा सेलाउँछ र विहानि पख चिसो हुन्छ । यहि तरिकाले पृथ्विलाई पुग्ने गरी वर्षादले चिस्याउने काम गर्न सक्छ । वर्षाद हुना साथ चिसो भै हाल्ने हामी सवैलाई थाहा भएकै कुरा हो। नियमित रुपमा वर्षाद हुन नसकेकोले पृथ्विमा तापक्रम वढी रहेको छ। ३. ग्यासवाट हरियो घर (हरित गृह) बन्दैन: हरियो घर बनाउन ग्यासवाट हुने भए सवैले ग्यास कै घर वनाउँथे । यस्तो घर वनाउन ठोस पारदर्शि वस्तु (प्लाष्टिक वा शिशा)को आवश्यक पर्दछ । त्यस्ता वस्तुले छोपेर वनाएको घरलाई ‘हरियो घर’ भनिन्छ । जाडोमा वचाउन गाह्रो हुने विरुवालाई राख्नको लागि वनाईएकोले हरियो घर भनिएको हो । घाम भित्र छिर्छ तर हवा भित्र वाहिर गर्न नपाउने भएकोले भित्र न्यानो हुन्छ । न्यानो पार्न हामीहरु पनि झ्याल ढोका वन्द गरेर वस्छौँ । ग्यासवाट कुनै पनि प्रकारको घर वनाउन नसकिने भएकोले ग्यासले वनाएको घरको कारणले ‘हरितगृह प्रभाव’ भएर गर्मि वढेको हो भन्नु विल्कुलै अवैग्यानिक फजुल कुरा हो । कुनै पनि ग्यासलाई हरित गृह ग्यास भन्नै मिल्दैन । त्यस्ता ग्यास हुनै सक्दैन । अत: जलवायु परिवर्तनको दोष ग्यासलाई दिन मिल्दैन । ४. हाम्रो मौसमी वायु मण्डलको वनावट: हाम्रो मौसमी वायु मण्डल ग्यासहरुको समान मिष्रण हो । तल माथि, दायाँ वायाँ, चारै तिर हमेशा चलिरहने भएकोले हामीले सास फेर्ने वायु मण्डलमा ग्यासहरु तह तह भएर वस्नै पाउँदैन । तह तह भएर बसेको भए हामी बस्ने पृथ्विको सतह माथि नै सवै भन्दा गह्रुँगो ग्यास कारबोन डाईअक्साईड हुने थियो र हामी जिवित हुने थिएनौँ । बाँच्नलाई अक्सिजन भएको हवा चाहिन्छ । यस कारणले पनि वायु मण्डलमा भएको ग्यासले हरित गृह प्रभाव हुनै सक्दैन, असम्भव । ५. हाम्रो मौसमी वायु मण्डलको तापक्रम: जति जति यस वायु मण्डलको माथि जान्छौँ त्यति त्यति चिसो हुन्छ । ताप प्रसारणको सिद्धान्त अनुसार चिसो ठाऊँमा पुगेको ताप फेरि तल तातो गर्मी पृथ्वि तिर कहिल्यै फर्केर आउँदैन । अत: यस कारणले पनि वायु मण्डलमा भएको ग्यासले हरित गृह प्रभाव हुनै सक्दैन, असम्भव । ६. जलवायु परिवर्तनको कारण: हामी सबैलाई थाहा भएकै कुरा हो बर्षाद भएमा ठण्डा हुन्छ । हिमालमा हिउँ थपिन्छ । वन जँगल सप्रिन्छ । सिँचाईँ राम्रो हुन्छ । खानको लागि पानी प्रसस्त हुन्छ । जमिन भित्र पानी पस्छ \ भरिन्छ । यसरि सवै ठाऊँमा नियमित रुपमा पानी पुगिरहे पछि समुद्रमा जम्मा भै रहेको पानी पनि विस्तारै घटेर जाने छ । वर्षाद नियमित भएमा जलवायु परिवर्तनले निम्त्याएका सबै समस्याहरु समाधान हुने छ । अत: वर्षाद चक्र नै जलवायु बा मौसम नियन्त्रण गर्ने मुख्य कारक हो भन्न सकिन्छ । ७. वर्षाद चक्र: वर्षाद चक्र पृथ्विको सतहवाट हुने वाष्पिकारण सँग मात्र सम्वन्धि छ । समुद्र, ताल वा नदीवाट वाष्पिकारण भएर नियमित वर्षा हुँदैन (वर्षाद मौसममा वढी पानी पार्न सहायक भने हुन्छ) सो हुने भए अहिले तापक्रम वढेको र समुद्र फैलिएको वेला झन् धेरै नियमित वर्षाद हुनु पर्ने थियो । त्यसैले वर्षाद चक्र गड वड हुनाको कारण पृथ्विको सतहवाट वाष्पिकारण हुने प्रक्रियामा गड वड भएकोले नै हो भन्न सकिन्छ । वाष्पिकारण हुन अति नै धेरै तापको आवश्यक पर्छ । समुद्र त्यति तातो हुनै पाउँदैन । मानिसले घर, सडक ईत्यादी बनाएर; ढुँगा ईँटा विछ्याएर; वन जँगल फडानि गरेर; र मरुभूमि फैलाएर वर्षाद चक्रलाई नभै नहुने वाष्पिकारण अत्यधिक मात्रामा घटाए वा रोकि दिए । सँसार भरी करौँडौँ बस्तीवाट वाष्पिकारण प्रशस्त रोकिए पछि वर्षाद चक्र पनि वर्ष भरि फैलिएर नियमित हुन सकेन । अनौठो भएन । अत: वर्षाद चक्रको गलत ब्याख्याले गर्दा जलवायु परिवर्तनको समस्या भोग्नु परेको छ । जलवायु परिवर्तनको समाधान: जलवायु परिवर्तनको समस्या समाधान गर्न वर्षाद चक्रलाई वर्ष भरी फैलाएर नियमित वर्षाद गराउनु वाहेक अरु उपाय छैन । वर्षाद नियमित पार्न पृथ्विको सवै सतह जति सक्यो त्यति भिजाएर राख्नै पर्छ, सुख्खा ठाउँ हुनुनै भएन । सो गरेमा वर्षाद चक्र स्वत: नियमित हुने छ । यो कार्य गर्न अहिले मानिसको लागि धेरै सजिलो काम मान्नु पर्छ । चाहेमा केहि महिना भित्र नै पूरा गर्न सकिन्छ । वर्षाद चक्रको लागि नयाँ ब्याख्याको आवश्यक छ । मौसम परिवर्तन हुनाको कारण ग्यास होईन, वर्षाद चक्रको ब्याख्या गलत तरिकाले गरेर भएको हो । समुद्रको पानी वाष्पिकरण भएर नियमित वर्षाद हुँदैन । वर्षाद हुन जमिनवाट नै वाष्पिकरण भएर मात्र सम्भव छ । emails: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk, dev.dangol@yahoo.com. indrdev2000@yahoo.co.uk 2

बिद्युत संकट वा कटौतीको दोष पानीलाई दिन मिल्दैन:

(असिमित जलविद्युत उत्पादन)

(गलत ठहर गर्ने पहिलोलाई रु. पच्चिस हजार ईनाम)


डा. देव बहादुर डंगोल

जलविद्युत आयोजनामा टर्वाईन जडान गर्ने हालको प्रचलित तरिकामा पानीको द्रब्य गुण र भू-कर्षण बलका विशेषताहरुमा पूर्ण ध्यान पु-याईएको छैन । उचाई अनुसार चाप हुन्छ भन्ने नवगेको पानीको अवस्थाको सिद्धान्तलाई स्तम्भ भरि एकनासको चाप हुने वगेको पानीको अवस्थामा लागु गर्ने गल्ति हुन गएकोले \ गरेकोले त्यसो भएको हो । हाल एउटा मात्र टर्बाईन जडान गरी न्युनतम मात्र विद्युत उत्पादन गर्दै आएका छौँ । ती दुई पछ्यका सर्व मान्य सिद्धान्तहरुमा ध्यान पु-याईएको भए धेरै टर्बाईनहरु जडान गर्ने तरिकामा फरक हुने थियो । हाल एउटा मात्र टर्वाईन घुमाउन पुग्ने पानी वगेको एउटै पाईपमा नै पाईप वा पानीको धारलाई नटुटाई क्रमश: धेरै टर्वाईनहरु जडान गरेर धरै गुणा वढी (असिमित) विद्युत उत्पादन गरिन्थ्यो । र, सो पानी खान वा सिँचाई अथवा अन्य कामको लागी पनि उपलब्ध गराउन सकिन्थ्यो । हालको प्रचलित तरिका अनुसार हरेक एउटा टर्वाईनलाई छुट्टा छुट्टै पाईप मार्फत पानी पु-याईन्छ । अत: धेरै टर्वाईनहरु घुमाउन धेरै मात्रा पानीको आवश्यकता हुन्छ । जलविद्युतको लागि पानी प्रवाह गर्दा जति जस्तो पानी टर्वाइन भित्र गएको हो उस्तै बाहिर निस्कन्छ । भू-आकर्षण बलमा पनि केही कमि आउदैन \ हुँदैन । पानीको गतीमा पनी केही फरक हुँदैन । जती मात्रा भित्र पसेको हो त्यति मात्रा नै पानी वाहिर निस्कन्छ । वगेको पानीको स्तम्भ भरी नै चाप पनि एक नास नै कायम रहन्छ । टर्वाइन पनि पानी कै वेगमा घुम्छ । निरन्तर भू-आकर्षण वलको कारणले गर्दा माथि स्थित पानी मात्र तल तिर खस्छ । विद्युत प्राप्त गर्न आवश्यकता अनुसार उचित उचाईवाट पानीलाई खसालेर टर्वाईन घुमाईन्छ, जस्ले विद्युत क्रियाशिल वा प्रवाह गराउने जेनेरेटरलाई घुमाउँछ र हामीले विद्युत प्राप्त गर्दछौँ । पानी खसाल्नलाई प्राप्त शक्ति वास्तवमा पृथ्विको भू-आकर्षण वल हो । जुन सुकै वल प्रयोग गरे पनि विद्युत उत्पादन गर्न टर्वाईन घुमाउन आवश्यक पर्दछ । आवश्यकता अनुसार पानी वगेर जान सक्ने गरी टर्वाईन वनाईएको हुन्छ । भू-आकर्षण वललाई उपयोगमा ल्याउन पानीलाई उचित उचाईवाट खस्न दिने एउटा उपयुक्त संरचना हो । पानी प्रवाह भैरहेको एउटै पाईपमा धेरै टर्वाईनहरु चलाउन सकिन्छ पानीको द्रब्य गुणहरु र भू-आकर्षण बलका बिशेषताहरुको आधारमा एक भन्दा वढी टर्वाईनहरु घुमाउन एउटा टर्वाईनलाई मात्र घुमाउन पुग्ने पानी प्रवाह गरी सोहि पाईपमा पानीको धार र पाईपलाई नटुटाई एक पछि अर्को जडान गरेर धेरै टर्वाईनहरु सँचालन गर्न सकिन्छ । सो अनुसार पानी प्रबाह गर्दा टर्वाईन र वगेको पानीको कार्य छ्यमतामा केहि पनी कमि आउँदैन । पानीको द्रब्य गुणहरु र भू-आकर्षण बलका विशेषताहरु दुवै पछ्यहरुको प्रमाणित सिध्दान्तहरुले पनि सो कुराको पुष्टि गर्दछ । मुख्यत: ती दुई वैग्यानिक पछ्यहरुलाई ध्यानमा राखेर नै टर्वाईन भित्र पानी प्रवाह गरिएको हुन्छ । जलविद्युत उत्पादन गर्न पानी प्रवाहको लागि प्रयोगमा आउने शक्ति भू-आकर्षण बलवाट मात्र प्राप्त हुन्छ । भू-आकर्षण बल भनेको अथाह कहिल्यै नसकिने, कुनै उपायले वाधा पु-याउन वा छेक्न सकिँदैन, जति उपयोग गरे पनि कम नहुने र कुनै पनि ठाउँको हरेक विन्दुमा जहिले पनि निरन्तर प्राप्त भै नै रहन्छ, पन्छाउन पनि सकिँदैन । हवाको वल, चुम्बकिय वल वा प्रकाशलाई छेक्न सकिन्छ तर भू-आकर्षण बललाई छेक्न सकिँदैन । कुनै पनि पदार्थको पिण्ड रहे सम्म सो वल रही रहन्छ । पिण्डको स्वभाविक प्राकृतिक गुण हो । अत: पानी निरन्तर प्रवाह भैरहेको एउटै पाईपमा एक पछि अर्को धेरै टर्वाईनहरु जडान गरी सबैलाई एकनासले सँचालन गर्न सकिन्छ, गुणात्मक धेरै जलविद्युत उत्पादन गर्न सकिन्छ । एकनासले निरन्तर पानी वगिरहेको पाईपमा एउटा वा शुन्य टर्वाईन सँचालन गरेमा पनि वगिरहेको पानीको कार्य छ्यमतामा केही पनि घटवढ हँदैन, एकनासै कायम रहन्छ । एक पछि अर्को टर्वाईनलाई घुमाउँदै वग्दा पनि बगिरहेको पानीको कार्य छ्यमतामा केहि पनि कम हुँदैन । यसो हुनाको कारण माथि उल्लेख गरे अनुसार भू-आकर्षण वलका विशेषताहरुले गर्दा हो । द्रब्य गुण अनुसार स्थिर पानीमा लगाईएको वल सवै दिशा तिर बराबर फैलिन्छ र उचाई अनुसार चाप हुन्छ । नवगेको पानीको स्तम्भको सबै भन्दा तल सवै भन्दा वढी चाप हुन्छ । तर प्रवाह भै रहेको वेला पानीको स्तम्भको फेदमा जतिकै पाईप भित्र पानीको पूर्ण स्तम्भ भरिनै चाप एक नास हुन्छ, माथि देखि तल सम्म पूर्ण स्तम्भ भरी । र, पानी प्रवाह भएको दिशातिर मात्र पानीको चापले काम गरी रहेको हुन्छ । वगेको पानीको धारको कुनै पनि विन्दुमा गुरुत्व आकर्षणवललको कारण दुई प्रकारको वलले मात्र असर पारी रहेको हुन्छ । कुनै विन्दुको माथि तिरको पानीको स्तम्भले तलतिर थिचिरहेको हुन्छ भने तल तिरको पानीको स्तम्भले तलतिर नै तानी रहेको हुन्छ । क्रमश: अँग्रेजिमा पुशिंग र पुलिँग फोर्श भनिन्छ । कुनै पनि विन्दुमा दुबैवल (पूर्ण स्तम्भ)को प्रभाव पानी वगेको दिशा तिर मात्र लाग्छ । अत: पाइपको पानीको पूर्ण स्तम्भ भरी नै चाप एक नास हुन्छ । नवगेको पानीको स्तम्भमा यो गुण हुँदैन । नवगेको पानीको स्तम्भको फेदमा सवै भन्दा वढी चाप हुन्छ । यहि सिद्धान्तलाई वगेको पानीको अवस्थामा पनि लागु गरी जलविद्युत आयोजनामा वगेको पानीको फेदमा एउटा मात्र टर्वाईन जडान गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने गल्ति भयो । नवगेको पानीको अवस्थाको सिद्धान्तलाई वगेको पानीको अवस्थामा लागु गर्न मिल्दैन । अत: पानी प्रवाह भै रहेको एउटै पाइपमा क्रमिक रुपमा जडान गरिएका सवै टर्वाइनहरु जव पूर्ण रुपमा घुम्न थाल्छन् पाइपको पूर्ण स्तम्भ भरी नै पानीको चाप पनि एकनासको नै कायम रहन्छ । यसो हुनाको कारण भू-आकर्षण वलको विशेषताले गर्दा हो । वगिरहेको पानीको स्तम्भको धारमा टर्वाईन हुँदा वा नहुँदाको अवस्थामा पानीको स्तम्भको चापमा केही पनि फरक हुँदैन । पानीको उचाई, पाईपको उचाई, पानी भित्र पस्ने र वाहिर आउने मात्रा, पानीको वेग, भू-आकर्षण वल ईत्यादि सवै पछ्यहरुमा उस्तै नै अवस्था कायम रहन्छ, केही पनि फरक हुँदैन । अत: पानी प्रवाह भैरहेको एउटा पाइपमा नै धेरै टर्वाइनहरु जडान गरेर हालको भन्दा धेरै गुणा वढी (असिमित) जलविद्युत प्राप्त गर्न सकिन्छ । यसरी क्रमिक सिद्धान्त अनुसार टर्वार्इनहरु जडान गरिएमा जलविद्युतको लागि नयाँ आयोजनाको आवश्यकता पर्ने छैन । टर्वाइनहरु थपेर भएकै संरचनावाट असिमित विद्युत उत्पादन गर्न सकिन्छ । पानी वगिरहँदा पाइपको कुनै पनि विन्दुमा \ स्थानमा टर्वाइन जडान गरे पनि केहि फरक पर्दैन । वगिरहेको पानीको पाइपको लम्वाई भरि नै जडान गरे पनि सवै टर्वाइनहरु सवै एकनासले नै संचालन गर्न सकिन्छ । एक्लो नेपालमानै असिमित जलविद्युत विद्यमान छ । एउटै जलविद्युत गृहमा धेरै टर्वाइनहरु जडान भैसकेको भएमा पनि तिनीहरुलाई पनि क्रमिक ढंगले पानी प्रवाह गराउन सकिन्छ । यसरी पानी प्रवाह गर्ने तरिका परिवर्तन गरिएमा एउटा टर्वाईन संचालन गर्ने पानीको मात्राले नै धेरै टर्वाइनहरु संचालन गर्न सकिन्छ । हाल टर्वाईनमा पानी प्रवाह गर्ने तरिका गलत सिद्धान्तमा आधारित भएकोले एउटा पाईपको पानीवाट एउटा टरवाईनवाट मात्र (न्युनतम) विद्युत उत्पादन भै रहेको छ । नवगेको पानीको अवस्थाको सिद्धान्तलाई गल्तीले वगेको पानीको अवस्थामा लागु गरेकोले त्यसो भएको हो । विश्वमा असिमित जलशक्ति उपलब्ध छ । क्रमिक तरिकाले पानी प्रवाह गर्ने गरी धेरै टरवाईनहरु जडान गरेर जलविद्युत आयोजनाहरु संचालन गरेमा विद्युतको लागि अन्य कुनै पनि उपायको आवश्यकता पर्ने छैन । विद्युत धेरै सस्तो हुने छ । कोइला, ग्यास, डिजेल, आणविक ईत्यादि ईन्धनको अपार वचावट हुनेछ । चाहे भन्दा धेरै कार्बोन डाईअक्साईड पनि घट्ने छ ।

the following video shows the method of installing turbines in series





emails: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk, dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk, dev.dangol@yahoo.com,
indrdev2000@yahoo.co.uk mobile: 9841 647 393

HYDROLOGIC PROCESS NEEDS NEW EXPLANATIONS (as a draft)

WE have been explaining the rain cycle wrong way causing climate change. The regular rain cycle can’t occur due to the evaporation from the sea or ponds or rivers. Evaporation from those masses of water is impossible to cause regular rain cycle. The monsoon cloud is also not possible by the evaporation of sea-water. It is pushed away from the land water evaporation by convection current. 1. Wrong explanations of rain cycle caused the climate change. 2. Rain cycle has been explained wrong way. 3. Rain cycle needs new explanations. 4. Hydrologic process is explained wrong way causing climate change. 5. rain cycle does not occur by the evaporation of water from sea or ponds or rivers 6. regular rain cycle requires evaporation from land area. 7. evaporation of water from sea or ponds or rivers is insignificant. If it was so we should have more frequent rain-falls nowadays, since temperature is rising and the sea is spreading. Let us take two buckets of water; spread one bucket of water on a dry floor and another bucket of water just leave as it is in the bucket, the results explains. Spread water will evaporate within 2 or 3 hours and the water in the bucket will hardly evaporate in a month. Equivalent to Surface area of a bucket sea will have millions of buckets of water, so it is far from evaporation of water necessary for rain cycle. - Evaporation of water needs very high quantity of heat. Heating to 100 degrees C PLUS 560 calories of heat for every one gram of water to convert into vapor or steam. - water has the highest capacity of absorbing heat. Becomes cold as soon as it rains. - Rainfalls does maintain temperature within a range. May be within 1 to 25 degree C, I guess. - Ice cold surroundings becomes warmer when it rains. And, a hot surroundings becomes colder. - Land surface absorbs heat and becomes very warm quickly but sea water has never risen temperature for billions of years, required for quick evaporation to cause rain. So evaporation from moist land is very fast compared to sea water which have evaporation only for humidifying air. Even ponds can not get heated to evaporate water significantly needed for rain cycle. - It is very likely that monsoon cloud formed over sea is actually pushed away as cloud formed from land evaporation by convection current. Monsoon cloud does not rain before it reaches over land. - The cloud from the sea when reaches over land it is lifted up to colder height due to convection current because the land area is much warmer than sea water, then only precipitation is possible. Then we have rain of cold water.

HYDROLOGIC PROCESS NEEDS NEW EXPLANATIONS

WE have been explaining the rain cycle wrong way causing climate change. The regular rain cycle can’t occur due to the evaporation from the sea or ponds or rivers. Evaporation from those masses of water is impossible to cause regular rain cycle.

emails: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk, dev.dangol@yahoo.com, indrdev2000@yahoo.co.uk

Saturday, November 6, 2010

2 of 24 posts Kyoto TO Cop15 Theme Is Wrong Scientifically

2 of 24 posts


Kyoto TO Cop15 Theme Is Wrong Scientifically

Climate Change Due To Gases Is Impossible

TO SAY CLIMATE CHANGE IS DUE TO GASES IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF FOOLING THE WORLD BY SCIENCE. THEY ARE NOT EXCUSABLE FOR MISLEADING THE WORLD AND DEPRIVING FROM WORKING OUT THE SOLUTION.

Considering temperature and rain, temperature rise due to gases is impossible. And, rain cycle has no relation with any factor other than evaporation from the surface of the Earth.

1. Our immediate atmosphere, troposphere is a homogenous mixture of gases. It is not layered. Kyoto protocol considers layered. Had it been layered carbon dioxide (CO2 would be at the lowest level next to the surface of the Earth. Then, we would be dead. We need oxygen to be alive. It could be layered if it were not moving freely like in a deep well.

2a. Principle of heat transmission is that heat travels only from the higher to lower temperature. But the protocol challenges the established principle by saying that heat from the colder front is reflected by a layer of so called ‘green house gases’.

2b. Air or gases by convection method of heat transmission are helping the earth to cool down, though it is not enough.

3. Gases can’t reflect heat back as it moves up when heated and releases heat when it reaches colder front.

4. No gases are ‘green house gases’. Gases can’t make green house. For making green house we need solid transparent materials like plastics or glasses.

5. Higher we go our immediate climatic atmosphere becomes thinner and colder. At the height of ozonosphere, thirty thousand (30000) feet, temperature is minus 58.

6. Our atmosphere is perfect transparent after vacuum so reflection phenomenon is not possible. If gases of our atmosphere are reflective we should not be able to see objects through nor earth would be visible from space.


Causes Of Climate Change

There are also other cooling systems in the nature. Rain cycle is the most effective cooling system. Water absorbs highest quantity of heat. 1 gm of water from ice at zero degrees centigrade to steam at 100¬¬ degrees can absorb (80¬ + 100 + 560) 740 calories of heat (Whereas one gram of iron hardly needs 90 calories of heat for the same purpose). We know rain cycle is not spread over all the months of the years but only one hottest month. We can revive rain so that it is spread through to the year. We need to correct the mistakes we have done. The only factor related to rain cycle is evaporation from the surface of the earth and we have reduced the process by covering surface of the earth that used to be always moist and fertile by houses, pavements, roads etc. this process is on the increase day by day. Secondly, we are drying lands by deforestation. Rain cycle is disturbed not by reducing drying of land areas. If we could keep lands always moist rain will occur. Thirdly, desert has no evaporation at all. So all those three factors are reducing frequency of rain. So to revive rain cycle as used to be like in old days we must keep surfaces of the earth always moist as much as possible if not 100 % as in the pre-historic time. It can be done very easily and quicky.

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

3 of 24 postsCLIMATE CHANGE BY GASES IS IMPOSSIBLE

3 of 24 posts


CLIMATE CHANGE BY GASES IS IMPOSSIBLE

Climate Change: Causes And Solution
Dr. Dev Bahadur Dongol
Prevention is better than cure. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change may be the immediate measures but not the solution. We can’t win the fight against the nature. We have also accepted that the climate change is caused by the human errors. Nobody has explained the errors so far. Yet we are blaming the gases, though the gases are helping the earth to cool down by convection method of heat transmission and the rain has nothing to do with gas or any other factor than just evaporation of water from the surface of the earth (not from the sea or pond or rivers). Here is the scientific analysis of the cause of the climate change and the one and only solution to reverse the climate change.
Considering five basic elementary level established theories of science, gases neither can cause global warming nor climate change. Gases are accused of global warming which is totally unscientific. Rain cycle has nothing to do with other reasons than evaporation from the surface of the earth. By climate change we usually refer to global warming and rains. Scientifically both the phenomena have no link with any gas at all.

1. Heat transmission principle: heat is always transmitted from higher to lower temperature surroundings. Heat once reached in the high up cold atmosphere can never come back to hotter zone of the atmosphere.

2. Methods of heat transmission – there are three methods of heat transmission. They are radiation, conduction and convection.
Radiation- it is a method when heat energy jumps or travel in all directions without any medium from the source and is absorbed by any object that is on the way. It is like throwing out many objects and others catch some of them. This is the method how we get heat from the Sun.
Conduction – this is the process when heat is passed on from one molecule to another adjacent molecule. This happens when we heat a solid substance that is a good conductor of heat e.g. a metal. It is like passing an object from one end to another end by standing many people in a queue.
Convection- this process of heat transmission happens when fluids, gases and liquids, are heated. They have freely moving molecules, so when heated they move in the upward direction. They release heat when they reach cold front. They come down again when they become cold. This process of moving molecules up and down goes on repeatedly while the fluids are being heated. This process is something like we picking up goods from the shops and deliver them at homes repeatedly. This is what happening in our atmosphere all the time. Gases are actually helping the earth to cool down by convection method of heat transmission though it is not enough.

3. Gases Can’t Form a Green House - It is a structure covered by glasses or plastics that are transparent and solid. Heat entered is trapped inside. Air inside cannot move in and out of the transparent solid walls. So temperature inside is kept much warmer than outside the green house.
The freely moving air molecules as convection current cannot make a shield as solid glasses or plastics can make wall of a green house. So by looking scientifically into the nature of gases as fluids it is not possible for any gas of our immediate atmosphere to form a ‘green house’. We can’t call any gas a green house gas, so there is no so-called green house gas at all. Therefore it is quite logical to conclude that it is not the ‘green house effect’ of any gas that is causing global warming and climate change.

4. Physical properties of our immediate atmosphere – the climatic atmosphere or our immediate atmosphere where we breathe air in and out is a homogenous mixture. There is no separate layer of separate gas. Had the air been layered according to gases, our immediate layer of gas would be carbon dioxide not oxygen. Carbon dioxide is the heaviest gas in the air. We need oxygen to breathe to be alive.
5. Temperature of our Immediate atmosphere – it is colder higher we go. Heat reached up in the upper zone of our atmosphere can’t come back down to the hotter region, the principle of heat transmission.

6. Our atmosphere is perfect transparent after vacuum so reflection phenomenon is not possible. If gases of our atmosphere are reflective we should not be able to see objects through nor earth would be visible from space.

Causes - We all know rain means cold weather, adding snow on mountains, rich vegetation, easy irrigation, abundant drinking water, and recharging ground water. Taking water back to the places where it came from will eventually reduce the sea level water rise also. Only nature can do this job through rain cycle. So mainly ‘rain cycle’ controls our climate. Man reduced evaporation from the surface of earth drastically by covering the vast land area of the earth surface by pavements, construction of houses and roads. Human settlements, desert formation and deforestation are disrupting the rain cycle significantly and also causing temperature rise. Those three causes are expanding the dry earth surface day by day reducing frequency of rain cycle.
Solution - Thus regular pattern of rain cycle distributed throughout the year like in old days solves all the problems related to climate change. Only thing we have to do to revive rain cycle is to keep all the dry surface areas of the earth moist all the time as used to be in old days. By keeping the entire surface of the earth moist we will never face the climate change again in future.


the following write up is in Nepali language

जलवायु परिवर्तनको कारण र समाधान
डा. देव बहादुर डंगोल

हाल सम्म कसैले पनि जलवायु परिवर्तन हुनाको कारण प्रस्तुत वा व्याख्या गरेको छैन । तर मान्न चाहिँ मानेका छन् कि मानिस कै कारणले वा गल्तिले यसो भएको हो । दोष भने ग्यासलाई दिँदै आएका छन् । यहाँ जलवायु परिवर्तन हुनाको कारण र निवारण वारे वैग्यानिक विश्लेषण प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । जलवायु परिवर्तनको असर न्युनिकरण गर्न वा यस्को असरवाट वच्ने उपायहरु तत्कालको लागि आवश्यक छन् तर निवारण चाहिँ होइन । औषधि उपचार गर्नु भन्दा रोग लाग्न नदिनु नै असल मानिन्छ । त्यसैले जलवायु परिवर्तनलाई रोक्नु नै वेश हुने छ । यसलाई पुरानो अवस्थामा नै पु-याउन सकिन्छ ।

सर्वमान्य पाँच वटा आधारभूत वैग्यानिक सिध्दान्तहरुको आधारमा ग्यासको कारणले जलवायु परिवर्तन हुनै सक्तैन । जलवायु परिवर्तन भन्नाले तापक्रम वृध्दि र वर्षाद दुई कुरालाई बुझ्ने गर्दछौँ । वैग्यानिक हिसावले ती दुवै पछ्यको कुनै पनि ग्यास सँग केहि पनि सम्बन्ध नै छैन । ग्यासले तापक्रम वृध्दि हैन बरु ताप प्रसारणको सिध्दान्त र ताप प्रसारणको सँवाहन तरिकाले पृथ्विलाई चिसो पार्ने वा सेलाऊने काम गरी रहेको छ । ग्यासले गर्दा तापक्रम वृध्दि भएको भन्नु एकदमै अवैग्यानिक फजुल कुरा हो । र, नियमित वर्षाद भनेको पृथ्विको सतहवाट पानी वाष्पीकरण भएर मात्र हुन्छ, अरु कुनै पनी कारण सँग यो प्रक्रियाको केही पनी सम्वन्ध नै छैन । समुद्र वा ताल वा नदीवाट पानी वाष्पीकरण भएकोवाट नियमित वर्षाद हुनै सक्दैन, त्यसो हुने भए अहिले तापक्रम वृध्दि भएको र समुद्र फैलिएको वेला झन् वढी वर्षाद हुने थियो ।
१. ताप प्रसारणको सिद्धान्त: ताप जहिले पनि वढीवाट कम तापक्रम भएको ठाउँ तिर मात्र सर्छ । त्यस्को उल्टो कमवाट वढी तापक्रम तिर ताप कहिल्यै प्रारण हुँदैन । वायु मण्डलको माथि चिसो ठाउँमा पुगेको ताप तल गरम ठाउँ पृथ्वि तिर कदापि आउँदैन ।
@= ताप प्रसारणका तरिकाहरु: ताप प्रसारणका तीनवटा विधिहरु
विकिरण: यस विधिद्वारा सवै दिसा तिर ताप आफै जान्छ । कुनै पनि माध्यमको आवश्य पर्दैन । ताप प्रसारण भै रहेको बेला बाटोमा भएको वस्तुहरुले ताप ग्रहण गर्छन्, वर्षादमा पानीका थोपाहरु टाऊकोमा परे जस्तो । यसै विधिद्वारा नै हामीले सूर्यवाट ताप प्राप्त गर्द छौँ ।
सन्चालन: यो विधिद्वारा ताप प्रसारण सुचालक ठोस वस्तुमा मात्र हुन्छ । पाएको तापलाई सँगैका अणुहरुलाई दिँदै एक पछि अर्को अणुहरु तताउँदै ताप सर्दै जान्छ । हामी लाममा उभिएर एकले अर्कोलाई दिँदै सामान ओसारे जस्तै कुनै धातुलाई एक छेउमा तताउँदा अर्को छेउ पनि विस्तारै तातेर आउँछ ।
सम्बाहन: यो तरिकाले ताप प्रसारण द्रब्य पदार्थ (झोल वा ग्यास)मा मात्र हुन्छ । ती वस्तुहरुमा अणहरु स्वतन्त्र रुपमा चल्न सक्छन् । ताप पाए पछि तिनीहरुका अणुहरु माथि तिर जान्छन् र माथि चिसो ठाउँमा पुगे पछि ताप प्रसारण गर्छ र चिसो अणुहरु तल तिर झर्छन् । यो तरिका एक ठाउँवाट अर्को ठाउँमा ओसारेर सामान राख्दै गरे जस्तै हो । हाम्रो वायु मण्डलमा पनि यस्तै तरिकाले ताप प्रसारण निरन्तर भै रहेको छ त्यसैले दिन भरि तातेको पृथ्वि रातमा सेलाउँछ र विहानि पख चिसो हुन्छ । यहि तरिकाले पृथ्विलाई पुग्ने गरी वर्षादले चिस्याउने काम गर्न सक्छ ।
वर्षाद हुना साथ चिसो भै हाल्ने हामी सवैलाई थाहा भएकै कुरा हो। नियमित रुपमा वर्षाद हुन नसकेकोले पृथ्विमा तापक्रम वढी रहेको छ।
३. ग्यासवाट हरियो घर (हरित गृह) बन्दैन: हरियो घर बनाउन ग्यासवाट हुने भए सवैले ग्यास कै घर वनाउँथे । यस्तो घर वनाउन ठोस पारदर्शि वस्तु (प्लाष्टिक वा शिशा)को आवश्यक पर्दछ । त्यस्ता वस्तुले छोपेर वनाएको घरलाई ‘हरियो घर’ भनिन्छ । जाडोमा वचाउन गाह्रो हुने विरुवालाई राख्नको लागि वनाईएकोले हरियो घर भनिएको हो । घाम भित्र छिर्छ तर हवा भित्र वाहिर गर्न नपाउने भएकोले भित्र न्यानो हुन्छ । न्यानो पार्न हामीहरु पनि झ्याल ढोका वन्द गरेर वस्छौँ । ग्यासवाट कुनै पनि प्रकारको घर वनाउन नसकिने भएकोले ग्यासले वनाएको घरको कारणले ‘हरितगृह प्रभाव’ भएर गर्मि वढेको हो भन्नु विल्कुलै अवैग्यानिक फजुल कुरा हो । कुनै पनि ग्यासलाई हरित गृह ग्यास भन्नै मिल्दैन । त्यस्ता ग्यास हुनै सक्दैन । अत: जलवायु परिवर्तनको दोष ग्यासलाई दिन मिल्दैन ।

४. हाम्रो मौसमी वायु मण्डलको वनावट: हाम्रो मौसमी वायु मण्डल ग्यासहरुको समान मिष्रण हो । तल माथि, दायाँ वायाँ, चारै तिर हमेशा चलिरहने भएकोले हामीले सास फेर्ने वायु मण्डलमा ग्यासहरु तह तह भएर वस्नै पाउँदैन । तह तह भएर बसेको भए हामी बस्ने पृथ्विको सतह माथि नै सवै भन्दा गह्रुँगो ग्यास कारबोन डाईअक्साईड हुने थियो र हामी जिवित हुने थिएनौँ । बाँच्नलाई अक्सिजन भएको हवा चाहिन्छ । यस कारणले पनि वायु मण्डलमा भएको ग्यासले हरित गृह प्रभाव हुनै सक्दैन, असम्भव ।

५. हाम्रो मौसमी वायु मण्डलको तापक्रम: जति जति यस वायु मण्डलको माथि जान्छौँ त्यति त्यति चिसो हुन्छ । ताप प्रसारणको सिद्धान्त अनुसार चिसो ठाऊँमा पुगेको ताप फेरि तल तातो गर्मी पृथ्वि तिर कहिल्यै फर्केर आउँदैन । अत: यस कारणले पनि वायु मण्डलमा भएको ग्यासले हरित गृह प्रभाव हुनै सक्दैन, असम्भव ।

६. जलवायु परिवर्तनको कारण: हामी सबैलाई थाहा भएकै कुरा हो बर्षाद भएमा ठण्डा हुन्छ । हिमालमा हिउँ थपिन्छ । वन जँगल सप्रिन्छ । सिँचाईँ राम्रो हुन्छ । खानको लागि पानी प्रसस्त हुन्छ । जमिन भित्र पानी पस्छ \ भरिन्छ । यसरि सवै ठाऊँमा नियमित रुपमा पानी पुगिरहे पछि समुद्रमा जम्मा भै रहेको पानी पनि विस्तारै घटेर जाने छ । वर्षाद नियमित भएमा जलवायु परिवर्तनले निम्त्याएका सबै समस्याहरु समाधान हुने छ । अत: वर्षाद चक्र नै जलवायु बा मौसम नियन्त्रण गर्ने मुख्य कारक हो भन्न सकिन्छ ।

७. वर्षाद चक्र: वर्षाद चक्र पृथ्विको सतहवाट हुने वाष्पिकारण सँग मात्र सम्वन्धि छ । समुद्र, ताल वा नदीवाट वाष्पिकारण भएर नियमित वर्षा हुँदैन (वर्षाद मौसममा वढी पानी पार्न सहायक भने हुन्छ) सो हुने भए अहिले तापक्रम वढेको र समुद्र फैलिएको वेला झन् धेरै नियमित वर्षाद हुनु पर्ने थियो । त्यसैले वर्षाद चक्र गड वड हुनाको कारण पृथ्विको सतहवाट वाष्पिकारण हुने प्रक्रियामा गड वड भएकोले नै हो भन्न सकिन्छ । वाष्पिकारण हुन अति नै धेरै तापको आवश्यक पर्छ । समुद्र त्यति तातो हुनै पाउँदैन ।

मानिसले घर, सडक ईत्यादी बनाएर; ढुँगा ईँटा विछ्याएर; वन जँगल फडानि गरेर; र मरुभूमि फैलाएर वर्षाद चक्रलाई नभै नहुने वाष्पिकारण अत्यधिक मात्रामा घटाए वा रोकि दिए । सँसार भरी करौँडौँ बस्तीवाट वाष्पिकारण प्रशस्त रोकिए पछि वर्षाद चक्र पनि वर्ष भरि फैलिएर नियमित हुन सकेन । अनौठो भएन ।

अत: वर्षाद चक्रको गलत ब्याख्याले गर्दा जलवायु परिवर्तनको समस्या भोग्नु परेको छ ।


जलवायु परिवर्तनको समाधान: जलवायु परिवर्तनको समस्या समाधान गर्न वर्षाद चक्रलाई वर्ष भरी फैलाएर नियमित वर्षाद गराउनु वाहेक अरु उपाय छैन । वर्षाद नियमित पार्न पृथ्विको सवै सतह जति सक्यो त्यति भिजाएर राख्नै पर्छ, सुख्खा ठाउँ हुनुनै भएन । सो गरेमा वर्षाद चक्र स्वत: नियमित हुने छ । यो कार्य गर्न अहिले मानिसको लागि धेरै सजिलो काम मान्नु पर्छ । चाहेमा केहि महिना भित्र नै पूरा गर्न सकिन्छ ।

4 of 24 postsHARNESSING UNLIMITED HYDROPOWER

4 of 24 posts



the image shows the method of installing turbines in series

HARNESSING UNLIMITED HYDROPOWER
Don’t Blame Water For Power Cut

Dr. Dev Bahadur Dongol

The present practice of turbine installation system in the hydropower plants does not fully consider the fluid properties of water and characteristics of gravitational force of the earth. There has been a mistake of applying the principle of standing still water column to a condition where water is running. Had they been considered, instead of running only one turbine multiple turbines would have been installed in series along single water-supplying pipe without breaking the pipe and running water column to harness many folds more hydro-electricity than done at present. And, water would have been made available for irrigation, drinking and other purposes as well.

At present separate pipe supplies water to each turbine installed. So we need lot of water to run many turbines. Installation of many pipes means higher cost as well. Same amount of water comes out as was sent through the turbines and there is no pollution as well. The installation system does not change the value of gravitational force. Pressure effect through out the pipe also remains constant since the turbine rotates with the same velocity as the running water column. Only change is the position of water, from higher to lower position.

We drop water from a height to rotate a turbine and a generator connected with the turbine to produce electricity. The force that we use to drop water is actually gravitational force of the earth. It is appropriate to say ‘gravity electricity’ than say hydroelectricity. In hydropower, water uses force of gravity to generate electricity. We need force to generate electricity. So dropping water is an appropriate system to trap force of gravity to run turbines.

Single Running Water Column Can Run Multiple Turbines

Considering the fluid properties of water and characteristics of the force of gravity, a column of running water enough to run only one turbine can run many turbines one after another if connected in series without breaking flow of water. Installing turbines in series does not decrease the power of running water as well as that of turbines. Established scientific theories of both the aspects also support the series connection. Actually the water supply system to run only one turbine considers those aspects of science only partially.

The force that is used for running turbines in hydropower plants actually is the gravitational force of the earth. The characteristics of gravitational force are that it can’t be reduced nor blocked nor pushed aside as we can to wind or magnetic force or light. Gravitational force always acts constantly and uninterrupted at a given point. The gravitational force for a given mass is inbuilt and remains as long as the mass remains. Therefore, as long as water is available we can run many turbines by installing them in series along a single water supplying pipe and thus multiply the production of hydro -electricity many folds.

There is no change in the force of continuously running water inside a uniform pipe with one or more or none turbines installed. Running turbines one after another on the way does not reduce the force of the running water due to the characteristics of the gravitational force of the earth. In a standing still water column pressure exerted at one point is transmitted equally in all directions and water pressure varies according to the height of the water column, highest at the bottom of the water column. But in the running water column pressure effect is uniform though out the water column and is acting only in the direction of the flow. There is no lateral pressure according to the height as in the standing still water column. There are two types of force acting at any point of running water column. The water column above the given point exerts as pushing force whereas the water column below the point exerts as pulling force. The force at any point of the running water column is always equal to the weight of the whole water column. Both the forces are exerting in the same direction of the flowing water. And, this is not so in the water column that is standing still. The two conditions are different. But unfortunately we have been installing turbines only at the bottom of the running water column thinking that pressure effect is highest at that point as in the standing still water column. Applying the properties of water column that is standing still in the hydropower installations where running water column works is indeed a mistake, though it is not totally wrong. We can install turbines at any point from highest to the lowest point of the running water column and can get the same result. Since turbines don’t decrease the velocity of water that is flowing in a uniform pipe we can install as many turbines as the length of the pipe can accommodate.

Because of the characteristics of the gravitational force of the earth the whole running water column inside a uniform pipe maintains the pressure uniform through out the water column even after rotating all the turbines on the way installed in series. It makes no difference whether the turbines are installed or not in the running water column. Since the pressure is uniform through out the water column turbines can be installed at any height of the running water column; the position does not make any difference. So far the water is running there is no change in all the factors like height of the pipe, height of the water column, velocity of water, quantity of the water flowing, the value of the force of gravity etc. Therefore, we can multiply the output of the hydroelectricity by running many turbines along a single water supplying pipe. We would not need new hydropower projects if we switch over to installing turbines in series in the existing hydropower plants. By just adding turbines we can harness unlimited hydropower from the already installed infrastructure.

the following video shows the method of installing turbines in series




We can change into series water supply system to multiple turbines that are already installed under one power station. This change will make it possible to run many turbines with water enough to run only one turbine. So power cut is not due to shortage of water but our wrong application of related science. Thus by the present system of installing turbines we are harnessing only minimum hydropower. Nepal alone has unlimited hydropower. Earth is blessed with unlimited hydropower. By harnessing hydropower this new way world wouldn’t need thermal or nuclear power. We can save coal, gas, or diesel tremendously and reduce far greater quantity of carbon dioxide emission than we desire for.
email: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk

THE FORMULA

The formula used to calculate power output in the hydropower is wrong, needs corrections.

Ht X g X rate of water discharged = watts

If so

Can we get more output by supplying more water by increasing the size of water supplying pipe for a given hydropower installation? No, that means quantity of water discharged at the same velocity does not increase output.
What will happen if we move the same electromagnetic set to different places of different altitude? Will the output will be equal. No, because at the place where value of ‘g’ is greater, nearer to sea level, the velocity of water will be greater even the height of the penstock pipe is same than at a place where value of ‘g’ is less i.e. at higher altitude. Faster velocity of water will rotate the turbine faster, thus the output will be greater, more rpm more output.

Instead of using discharge rate, more correct formula could be velocity of water hitting the runner of the turbine.

What about rmp, wire turnings (more the turnings the more quantity or ampere of electricity), and number of poles (more the poles the more is the voltage) in the generator installed?

Making stronger electromagnet requires more turnings, more the number of turnings of wire the stronger the magnet is? Reverse process is electrical effect of magnet. Greater the turnings coil the same magnet will have more electrical effect than when the number of turnings is less.

So I think the formula should be expressed
Number of turnings of wire X number of poles in the generator X rpm or velocity of water

RPM or velocity of water depends upon height of the falling water column (head height) at a given place. The value of ‘g’ is constant at a given place.

5 of 24 postsOZONE DEPLETION BY CFC IS IMPOSSIBLE

5 of 24 posts


OZONE DEPLETION BY CFC IS IMPOSSIBLE
(13 September 2010, THE RISING NEPAL, Kathmandu, Nepal)
Dr. Dev Bahadur Dongol
email: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk
Don’t Blame CFC
Our immediate climatic atmosphere (troposphere) IS NOT LAYERED. It is a homogenous mixture of gases because it is moving all the time; therefore it is thoroughly mixed up. So there is no layer of gases that reflects heat because gases move upwards when it is heated. It releases heat when reaches a colder zone. Principle of heat transmission is that heat always travels from hotter to colder zone. Above climatic atmosphere is Ozonosphere. We all know the air becomes thinner as we go higher. So lighter gases are situated at higher altitude and heavier gases are situated near the earth due to the gravitational pull of the earth. So the troposphere has comparatively all the heavy gases. Compared to the atmosphere near the surface of the earth the ozone layer is very thin. This we can guess by considering the fact that the mountaineers have to carry oxygen with them even to climb mountains that are much lower than Mount Everest. Ozone is situated even at higher altitude, 30,000 feet. So naturally ozone layer must be thinner than oxygen available at the height of the Mount Everest.
Ozone layer works on ‘make and break’ principle, as O3 breaks into three atoms of oxygen because of the heat of the Ultraviolet ray from the Sun. But oxygen cannot stay as atom alone, it has to be in the molecular form by combining with another atoms or molecules. Since only oxygen is available in the ozonosphere it combines with other atoms of oxygen and again becomes ozone; by doing that it releases heat it absorbed as ozone molecules. But as soon as it becomes ozone the continuously available Ultraviolet rays from the Sun again breaks the ozone molecules into atoms of oxygen. This is how ozone blocks some heat from the Sun.
CFC is Chloro–Fluoro-Carbon (Cl¬2 F2 C) and has two atoms of chlorine, two atoms of fluorine and one atom of carbon. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. Ozone is O3 or three atoms of Oxygen combined and it is unstable because it breaks into single oxygen atoms when heated.
Molecular weights, comparative weights of O2, CO2, O3 and Chlorofluorocarbon (Hydrogen is lightest gas so its weight is standardized as 1, Oxygen is 16, carbon is 12, chlorine is 35.5, and fluorine is 19) are as follow:

(Oxygen 16X2 =32,  CO2 12 + 16X2 = 44, cl2 fl2 c (CFC) = 35.5X2 + 19X2 + 12 = 121, Ozone (O3) = 16X3 = 48 and atomic oxygen is 16; that’s why ozone layer can stay at higher than our immediate atmosphere.

Concentration of CO2 in the ozonosphere is nil as this gas is heavier than O2. So CFC molecules are too heavy and too scarce to reach to that height, then how it can deplete without being in contact with ozone? CFC is very heavy compared to CO2 and oxygen. It can’t reach to the ozone layer.

(Ozone layer works on ‘make and break’ principle. Ozone (O3) breaks into three atoms of oxygen as soon as it forms and form stable oxygen molecule, O2.

 Because the heat of the Ultraviolet ray from the Sun is available uninterrupted, oxygen molecules are broken into atomic oxygen and atomic oxygen cannot stay alone, it has to be in the molecular form by combining with other atoms and forms ozone, O3 which is very unstable and forms oxygen molecules, O2. Molecules of oxygen by absorbing heat of the UV from the Sun are again broken into atomic oxygen. Since only oxygen is available in the ozonosphere it combines with other atoms of oxygen and again becomes ozone.

Ozone by breaking into atomic oxygen releases heat it absorbed from UV to form oxygen molecules, but as soon as it becomes oxygen molecules UV breaks them to form atomic oxygen by the continuously available Ultraviolet rays from the Sun.  Again the ozone molecules break into atoms of oxygen immediately and releases heat. This is how ozone blocks some heat from the Sun. This ‘make and break’ of ozone goes on in no time, all the time. The sun’s rays are always entering the earth’s atmosphere).

Better explanation - jet flights

Every day millions of jet flight takes place in the world. They all fly at the height of 30,000 ft where the ozone layer lies. They carry fuel with them to burn. For burning the fuel they need huge quantity of oxygen which they get either from the climatic atmosphere (Troposphere) or Ozonosphere which is situated just above the troposphere. Anyone can guess how much oxygen is being used up by the flights of the planes and the jet planes. It is not difficult to accuse that these flights are causing the depletion of Ozone (if at all depleting). OZONE depletion by CFC (Cl2F2C -  dichloro-difluoro-carbon) is impossible, because it is too scarce and too heavy to reach to the ozonosphere.

Banning the jet planes to fly higher than 25,000 feet will definitely save our Ozone layer. But it is not necessary because uninterrupted UV from the Sun is continuously forming ozone out of the oxygen of the atmosphere, by doing so UV entering into our atmosphere is reduced to some extent.

OZONE DEPLETION IS NOT POSSIBLE.

 

Considering the action of UV, the depletion of Ozone is not possible before the extinction of human race (needs at least 16% O2 in the atmosphere to survive). UV is constantly forming O­3 (Ozone) out of the Oxygen of the atmosphere, thus reducing the amount of UV reaching the earth and is constantly making up the ozonosphere consumed by millions of jet flights every day. After extinction of human race, vegetation will be denser and thus O2 will be released into atmosphere at higher rate than at present. Thus, O3 depletion is impossible.

 

Details in the following posts of this blog: devbahadurdongol.blogspot.com

 

Tuesday, August 31, 2010

6 of 24 postsDON'T BLAME CFC FOR OZONE DEPLETION

6 of 24 posts


OZONE DEPLETION BY CFC IS IMPOSSIBLE
Dr. Dev Bahadur Dongol
Don’t Blame CFC
Our immediate climatic atmosphere (troposphere) IS NOT LAYERED. It is a homogenous mixture of gases because it is moving all the time; therefore it is thoroughly mixed up. So there is no layer of gases that reflects heat because gases move upwards when it is heated. It releases heat when reaches a colder zone. Above climatic atmosphere is Ozonosphere. We all know the air becomes thinner as we go higher. So lighter gases are situated at higher altitude and heavier gases are situated near the earth due to the gravitational pull of the earth. So the troposphere has comparatively all the heavy gases. Compared to the atmosphere near the surface of the earth the ozone layer is very thin. This we can guess by considering the fact that the mountaineers have to carry oxygen with them even to climb mountains that are much lower than Mount Everest. Ozone is situated even at higher altitude, 30,000 feet. So naturally ozone layer must be thinner than oxygen available at the height of the Mount Everest.
Ozone layer works on ‘make and break’ principle, as O3 breaks into three atoms of oxygen because of the heat of the Ultraviolet ray from the Sun. But oxygen cannot stay as atom alone, it has to be in the molecular form by combining with another atoms or molecules. Since only oxygen is available in the ozonosphere it combines with other atoms of oxygen and again becomes ozone; by doing that it releases heat it absorbed as ozone molecules. But as soon as it becomes ozone the continuously available Ultraviolet rays from the Sun again breaks the ozone molecules into atoms of oxygen. This is how ozone blocks some heat from the Sun.
CFC is Chloro–Fluoro-Carbon (Cl¬2 Fl2 C) and has two atoms of chlorine, two atoms of fluorine and one atom of carbon. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. Ozone is O3 or three atoms of Oxygen combined and it is unstable because it breaks into single oxygen atoms when heated.
Molecular weights, comparative weights of O2, CO2, O3 and Chlorofluorocarbon (Hydrogen is lightest gas so its weight is standardized as 1, Oxygen is 16, carbon is 12, chlorine is 35, and fluorine is 19) are as follow:
Oxygen is 16X2 =32, carbon dioxide is 12 + 16X2 = 44, Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC - Cl¬2 Fl2 C) is 35X2 + 19X2 + 12 = 120, Ozone (O3) is 16X3 = 48 and atomic oxygen is 16; that’s why ozone layer can stay at higher altitude than our immediate atmosphere.
Concentration of CO2 is nil in the Ozonosphere as this gas is heavier than O2. CFC is very heavy (almost three times heavier than CO2) and eight times heavier than oxygen. So it is quite obvious that it can’t reach the height where ozone layer is situated. Since CFC molecules can’t reach to that height, then how it can deplete ozone without being in contact with Ozone? So it is very unscientific to blame CFC for the depletion of Ozone layer.
Better explanation of Ozone depletion - jet flights
Every day millions of jet flight takes place in the world. They all fly at the height of 30,000 ft where the ozone layer lies. They carry fuel with them to burn. For burning the fuel they need huge quantity of oxygen. They consume oxygen either from the climatic atmosphere (Troposphere) or Ozonosphere (mainly) that is situated just above the troposphere. Anyone can guess how much oxygen the millions of flights of the planes and the jet planes are using up. So it is not difficult to accuse these flights for causing the depletion of Ozone.
Suggestion
Banning the jet planes to fly higher than 25,000 feet will definitely save our Ozone layer without doubt.
Email: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk

Monday, August 16, 2010

7 of 24 postsThe President Of The United States of America

7 of 24 posts



To,
The President Of The United States of America

Dear Sir,
THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, you have declared that you would spend billions of dollars to fight the climate change in the world. In this booklet I have clearly explained scientifically that global warming and climate change have no relationship with gases but rain cycle. Rain cycle has to do only with the evaporation of water from the surfaces of the Earth, not from the sea or pond or river. A Net-work of water supply system to all the possible places to keep the Earth’s surface always wet will solve the climate change related problems for ever and never to come back again. So I humbly request you to spend some amount for this purpose. I don’t think the project will need more than one billion dollars. Dear Sir, may I also draw your attention that there are tribes of human beings in the world who never take bath in their lifetime? There is no room for ANY DOUBT that after implementation of both the aspects of my discoveries, reviving rain cycle and harnessing unlimited hydropower, the Earth will eliminate the poverty for good, never to come back again.
I am lucky that the Lord chose me to explain the two aspects that are so simple, elementary science background is enough to understand them. Opportunities are for you to save the world. I wish you all the best.

Sincerely yours,
Dev Bahadur Dongol, Ph.D.
The discoverer
Email: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk
Blog: devbahadurdongol.blogspot.com

Friday, June 18, 2010

8 of 24 posts जल-बायु परिवर्तन र बिद्युत कटौतिको समाधान

A. जलवायु परिवर्तनको कारण र समाधान
(गलत ठहर गर्ने पहिलोलाई रु. पच्चिस हजार ईनाम)

डा. देव बहादुर डंगोल

हाल सम्म कसैले पनि जलवायु परिवर्तन हुनाको कारण प्रस्तुत वा व्याख्या गरेको छैन । तर मान्न चाहिँ मानेका छन् कि मानिस कै कारणले वा गल्तिले यसो भएको हो । दोष भने ग्यासलाई दिँदै आएका छन् । यहाँ जलवायु परिवर्तन हुनाको कारण र निवारण वारे वैग्यानिक विश्लेषण प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । जलवायु परिवर्तनको असर न्युनिकरण गर्न वा यस्को असरवाट वच्ने उपायहरु तत्कालको लागि आवश्यक छन् तर निवारण चाहिँ होइन । औषधि उपचार गर्नु भन्दा रोग लाग्न नदिनु नै असल मानिन्छ । त्यसैले जलवायु परिवर्तनलाई रोक्नु नै वेश हुने छ । यसलाई पुरानो अवस्थामा नै पु-याउन सकिन्छ ।

सर्वमान्य पाँच वटा आधारभूत वैग्यानिक सिध्दान्तहरुको आधारमा ग्यासको कारणले जलवायु परिवर्तन हुनै सक्तैन । जलवायु परिवर्तन भन्नाले तापक्रम वृध्दि र वर्षाद दुई कुरालाई बुझ्ने गर्दछौँ । वैग्यानिक हिसावले ती दुवै पछ्यको कुनै पनि ग्यास सँग केहि पनि सम्बन्ध नै छैन । ग्यासले तापक्रम वृध्दि हैन बरु ताप प्रसारणको सिध्दान्त र ताप प्रसारणको सँवाहन तरिकाले पृथ्विलाई चिसो पार्ने वा सेलाऊने काम गरी रहेको छ । ग्यासले गर्दा तापक्रम वृध्दि भएको भन्नु एकदमै अवैग्यानिक फजुल कुरा हो । र, नियमित वर्षाद भनेको पृथ्विको सतहवाट पानी वाष्पीकरण भएर मात्र हुन्छ, अरु कुनै पनी कारण सँग यो प्रक्रियाको केही पनी सम्वन्ध नै छैन । समुद्र वा ताल वा नदीवाट पानी वाष्पीकरण भएकोवाट नियमित वर्षाद हुनै सक्दैन, त्यसो हुने भए अहिले तापक्रम वृध्दि भएको र समुद्र फैलिएको वेला झन् वढी वर्षाद हुने थियो ।
१. ताप प्रसारणको सिद्धान्त: ताप जहिले पनि वढीवाट कम तापक्रम भएको ठाउँ तिर मात्र सर्छ । त्यस्को उल्टो कमवाट वढी तापक्रम तिर ताप कहिल्यै प्रारण हुँदैन । वायु मण्डलको माथि चिसो ठाउँमा पुगेको ताप तल गरम ठाउँ पृथ्वि तिर कदापि आउँदैन ।
@= ताप प्रसारणका तरिकाहरु: ताप प्रसारणका तीनवटा विधिहरु
विकिरण: यस विधिद्वारा सवै दिसा तिर ताप आफै जान्छ । कुनै पनि माध्यमको आवश्य पर्दैन । ताप प्रसारण भै रहेको बेला बाटोमा भएको वस्तुहरुले ताप ग्रहण गर्छन्, वर्षादमा पानीका थोपाहरु टाऊकोमा परे जस्तो । यसै विधिद्वारा नै हामीले सूर्यवाट ताप प्राप्त गर्द छौँ ।
सन्चालन: यो विधिद्वारा ताप प्रसारण सुचालक ठोस वस्तुमा मात्र हुन्छ । पाएको तापलाई सँगैका अणुहरुलाई दिँदै एक पछि अर्को अणुहरु तताउँदै ताप सर्दै जान्छ । हामी लाममा उभिएर एकले अर्कोलाई दिँदै सामान ओसारे जस्तै कुनै धातुलाई एक छेउमा तताउँदा अर्को छेउ पनि विस्तारै तातेर आउँछ ।
सम्बाहन: यो तरिकाले ताप प्रसारण द्रब्य पदार्थ (झोल वा ग्यास)मा मात्र हुन्छ । ती वस्तुहरुमा अणहरु स्वतन्त्र रुपमा चल्न सक्छन् । ताप पाए पछि तिनीहरुका अणुहरु माथि तिर जान्छन् र माथि चिसो ठाउँमा पुगे पछि ताप प्रसारण गर्छ र चिसो अणुहरु तल तिर झर्छन् । यो तरिका एक ठाउँवाट अर्को ठाउँमा ओसारेर सामान राख्दै गरे जस्तै हो । हाम्रो वायु मण्डलमा पनि यस्तै तरिकाले ताप प्रसारण निरन्तर भै रहेको छ त्यसैले दिन भरि तातेको पृथ्वि रातमा सेलाउँछ र विहानि पख चिसो हुन्छ । यहि तरिकाले पृथ्विलाई पुग्ने गरी वर्षादले चिस्याउने काम गर्न सक्छ ।
वर्षाद हुना साथ चिसो भै हाल्ने हामी सवैलाई थाहा भएकै कुरा हो। नियमित रुपमा वर्षाद हुन नसकेकोले पृथ्विमा तापक्रम वढी रहेको छ।
३. ग्यासवाट हरियो घर (हरित गृह) बन्दैन: हरियो घर बनाउन ग्यासवाट हुने भए सवैले ग्यास कै घर वनाउँथे । यस्तो घर वनाउन ठोस पारदर्शि वस्तु (प्लाष्टिक वा शिशा)को आवश्यक पर्दछ । त्यस्ता वस्तुले छोपेर वनाएको घरलाई ‘हरियो घर’ भनिन्छ । जाडोमा वचाउन गाह्रो हुने विरुवालाई राख्नको लागि वनाईएकोले हरियो घर भनिएको हो । घाम भित्र छिर्छ तर हवा भित्र वाहिर गर्न नपाउने भएकोले भित्र न्यानो हुन्छ । न्यानो पार्न हामीहरु पनि झ्याल ढोका वन्द गरेर वस्छौँ । ग्यासवाट कुनै पनि प्रकारको घर वनाउन नसकिने भएकोले ग्यासले वनाएको घरको कारणले ‘हरितगृह प्रभाव’ भएर गर्मि वढेको हो भन्नु विल्कुलै अवैग्यानिक फजुल कुरा हो । कुनै पनि ग्यासलाई हरित गृह ग्यास भन्नै मिल्दैन । त्यस्ता ग्यास हुनै सक्दैन । अत: जलवायु परिवर्तनको दोष ग्यासलाई दिन मिल्दैन ।

४. हाम्रो मौसमी वायु मण्डलको वनावट: हाम्रो मौसमी वायु मण्डल ग्यासहरुको समान मिष्रण हो । तल माथि, दायाँ वायाँ, चारै तिर हमेशा चलिरहने भएकोले हामीले सास फेर्ने वायु मण्डलमा ग्यासहरु तह तह भएर वस्नै पाउँदैन । तह तह भएर बसेको भए हामी बस्ने पृथ्विको सतह माथि नै सवै भन्दा गह्रुँगो ग्यास कारबोन डाईअक्साईड हुने थियो र हामी जिवित हुने थिएनौँ । बाँच्नलाई अक्सिजन भएको हवा चाहिन्छ । यस कारणले पनि वायु मण्डलमा भएको ग्यासले हरित गृह प्रभाव हुनै सक्दैन, असम्भव ।

५. हाम्रो मौसमी वायु मण्डलको तापक्रम: जति जति यस वायु मण्डलको माथि जान्छौँ त्यति त्यति चिसो हुन्छ । ताप प्रसारणको सिद्धान्त अनुसार चिसो ठाऊँमा पुगेको ताप फेरि तल तातो गर्मी पृथ्वि तिर कहिल्यै फर्केर आउँदैन । अत: यस कारणले पनि वायु मण्डलमा भएको ग्यासले हरित गृह प्रभाव हुनै सक्दैन, असम्भव ।

६. जलवायु परिवर्तनको कारण: हामी सबैलाई थाहा भएकै कुरा हो बर्षाद भएमा ठण्डा हुन्छ । हिमालमा हिउँ थपिन्छ । वन जँगल सप्रिन्छ । सिँचाईँ राम्रो हुन्छ । खानको लागि पानी प्रसस्त हुन्छ । जमिन भित्र पानी पस्छ \ भरिन्छ । यसरि सवै ठाऊँमा नियमित रुपमा पानी पुगिरहे पछि समुद्रमा जम्मा भै रहेको पानी पनि विस्तारै घटेर जाने छ । वर्षाद नियमित भएमा जलवायु परिवर्तनले निम्त्याएका सबै समस्याहरु समाधान हुने छ । अत: वर्षाद चक्र नै जलवायु बा मौसम नियन्त्रण गर्ने मुख्य कारक हो भन्न सकिन्छ ।

७. वर्षाद चक्र: वर्षाद चक्र पृथ्विको सतहवाट हुने वाष्पिकारण सँग मात्र सम्वन्धि छ । समुद्र, ताल वा नदीवाट वाष्पिकारण भएर नियमित वर्षा हुँदैन (वर्षाद मौसममा वढी पानी पार्न सहायक भने हुन्छ) सो हुने भए अहिले तापक्रम वढेको र समुद्र फैलिएको वेला झन् धेरै नियमित वर्षाद हुनु पर्ने थियो । त्यसैले वर्षाद चक्र गड वड हुनाको कारण पृथ्विको सतहवाट वाष्पिकारण हुने प्रक्रियामा गड वड भएकोले नै हो भन्न सकिन्छ । वाष्पिकारण हुन अति नै धेरै तापको आवश्यक पर्छ । समुद्र त्यति तातो हुनै पाउँदैन ।

मानिसले घर, सडक ईत्यादी बनाएर; ढुँगा ईँटा विछ्याएर; वन जँगल फडानि गरेर; र मरुभूमि फैलाएर वर्षाद चक्रलाई नभै नहुने वाष्पिकारण अत्यधिक मात्रामा घटाए वा रोकि दिए । सँसार भरी करौँडौँ बस्तीवाट वाष्पिकारण प्रशस्त रोकिए पछि वर्षाद चक्र पनि वर्ष भरि फैलिएर नियमित हुन सकेन । अनौठो भएन ।

अत: वर्षाद चक्रको गलत ब्याख्याले गर्दा जलवायु परिवर्तनको समस्या भोग्नु परेको छ ।


जलवायु परिवर्तनको समाधान: जलवायु परिवर्तनको समस्या समाधान गर्न वर्षाद चक्रलाई वर्ष भरी फैलाएर नियमित वर्षाद गराउनु वाहेक अरु उपाय छैन । वर्षाद नियमित पार्न पृथ्विको सवै सतह जति सक्यो त्यति भिजाएर राख्नै पर्छ, सुख्खा ठाउँ हुनुनै भएन । सो गरेमा वर्षाद चक्र स्वत: नियमित हुने छ । यो कार्य गर्न अहिले मानिसको लागि धेरै सजिलो काम मान्नु पर्छ । चाहेमा केहि महिना भित्र नै पूरा गर्न सकिन्छ ।

B. बिद्युत संकट वा कटौतीको दोष पानीलाई दिन मिल्दैन:
(असिमित जलविद्युत उत्पादन)
(गलत ठहर गर्ने पहिलोलाई रु. पच्चिस हजार ईनाम)
डा. देव बहादुर डंगोल

जलविद्युत आयोजनामा टर्वाईन जडान गर्ने हालको प्रचलित तरिकामा पानीको द्रब्य गुण र भू-कर्षण बलका विशेषताहरुमा पूर्ण ध्यान पु-याईएको छैन । उचाई अनुसार चाप हुन्छ भन्ने नवगेको पानीको अवस्थाको सिद्धान्तलाई स्तम्भ भरि एकनासको चाप हुने वगेको पानीको अवस्थामा लागु गर्ने गल्ति हुन गएकोले \ गरेकोले त्यसो भएको हो । हाल एउटा मात्र टर्बाईन जडान गरी न्युनतम मात्र विद्युत उत्पादन गर्दै आएका छौँ । ती दुई पछ्यका सर्व मान्य सिद्धान्तहरुमा ध्यान पु-याईएको भए धेरै टर्बाईनहरु जडान गर्ने तरिकामा फरक हुने थियो । हाल एउटा मात्र टर्वाईन घुमाउन पुग्ने पानी वगेको एउटै पाईपमा नै पाईप वा पानीको धारलाई नटुटाई क्रमश: धेरै टर्वाईनहरु जडान गरेर धरै गुणा वढी (असिमित) विद्युत उत्पादन गरिन्थ्यो । र, सो पानी खान वा सिँचाई अथवा अन्य कामको लागी पनि उपलब्ध गराउन सकिन्थ्यो । हालको प्रचलित तरिका अनुसार हरेक एउटा टर्वाईनलाई छुट्टा छुट्टै पाईप मार्फत पानी पु-याईन्छ । अत: धेरै टर्वाईनहरु घुमाउन धेरै मात्रा पानीको आवश्यकता हुन्छ ।
जलविद्युतको लागि पानी प्रवाह गर्दा जति जस्तो पानी टर्वाइन भित्र गएको हो उस्तै बाहिर निस्कन्छ । भू-आकर्षण बलमा पनि केही कमि आउदैन \ हुँदैन । पानीको गतिमा पनी केही फरक हुँदैन । जति मात्रा भित्र पसेको हो त्यति मात्रा नै पानी वाहिर निस्कन्छ । वगेको पानीको स्तम्भ भरी नै चाप पनि एक नास नै कायम रहन्छ । टर्वाइन पनि पानी कै वेगमा घुम्छ । निरन्तर भू-आकर्षण वलको कारणले गर्दा माथि स्थित पानी मात्र तल तिर खस्छ ।
विद्युत प्राप्त गर्न आवश्यकता अनुसार उचित उचाईवाट पानीलाई खसालेर टर्वाईन घुमाईन्छ, जस्ले विद्युत क्रियाशिल वा प्रवाह गराउने जेनेरेटरलाई घुमाउँछ र हामीले विद्युत प्राप्त गर्दछौँ । पानी खसाल्नलाई प्राप्त शक्ति वास्तवमा पृथ्विको भू-आकर्षण वल हो । जुन सुकै वल प्रयोग गरे पनि विद्युत उत्पादन गर्न टर्वाईन घुमाउन आवश्यक पर्दछ । आवश्यकता अनुसार पानी वगेर जान सक्ने गरी टर्वाईन वनाईएको हुन्छ । भू-आकर्षण वललाई उपयोगमा ल्याउन पानीलाई उचित उचाईवाट खस्न दिने एउटा उपयुक्त संरचना हो ।

पानी प्रवाह भैरहेको एउटै पाईपमा धेरै टर्वाईनहरु चलाउन सकिन्छ

पानीको द्रब्य गुणहरु र भू-आकर्षण बलका बिशेषताहरुको आधारमा एक भन्दा वढी टर्वाईनहरु घुमाउन एउटा टर्वाईनलाई मात्र घुमाउन पुग्ने पानी प्रवाह गरी सोहि पाईपमा पानीको धार र पाईपलाई नटुटाई एक पछि अर्को जडान गरेर धेरै टर्वाईनहरु सँचालन गर्न सकिन्छ । सो अनुसार पानी प्रबाह गर्दा टर्वाईन र वगेको पानीको कार्य छ्यमतामा केहि पनी कमि आउँदैन । पानीको द्रब्य गुणहरु र भू-आकर्षण बलका विशेषताहरु दुवै पछ्यहरुको प्रमाणित सिध्दान्तहरुले पनि सो कुराको पुष्टि गर्दछ । मुख्यत: ती दुई वैग्यानिक पछ्यहरुलाई ध्यानमा राखेर नै टर्वाईन भित्र पानी प्रवाह गरिएको हुन्छ । जलविद्युत उत्पादन गर्न पानी प्रवाहको लागि प्रयोगमा आउने शक्ति भू-आकर्षण बलवाट मात्र प्राप्त हुन्छ । भू-आकर्षण बल भनेको अथाह कहिल्यै नसकिने, कुनै उपायले वाधा पु-याउन वा छेक्न सकिँदैन, जति उपयोग गरे पनि कम नहुने र कुनै पनि ठाउँको हरेक विन्दुमा जहिले पनि निरन्तर प्राप्त भै नै रहन्छ, पन्छाउन पनि सकिँदैन । हवाको वल, चुम्बकिय वल वा प्रकाशलाई छेक्न सकिन्छ तर भू-आकर्षण बललाई छेक्न सकिँदैन । कुनै पनि पदार्थको पिण्ड रहे सम्म सो वल रही रहन्छ। पिण्डको स्वभाविक प्राकृतिक गुण हो । अत: पानी निरन्तर प्रवाह भैरहेको एउटै पाईपमा एक पछि अर्को धेरै टर्वाईनहरु जडान गरी सबैलाई एकनासले सँचालन गर्न सकिन्छ, गुणात्मक धेरै जलविद्युत उत्पादन गर्न सकिन्छ ।
एकनासले निरन्तर पानी वगिरहेको पाईपमा एउटा वा शुन्य टर्वाईन सँचालन गरेमा पनि वगिरहेको पानीको कार्य छ्यमतामा केही पनि घटवढ हुँदैन, एकनासै कायम रहन्छ ।
एक पछि अर्को टर्वाईनलाई घुमाउँदै वग्दा पनि बगिरहेको पानीको कार्य छ्यमतामा केहि पनि कम हुँदैन । यसो हुनाको कारण माथि उल्लेख गरे अनुसार भू-आकर्षण वलका विशेषताहरुले गर्दा हो । द्रब्य गुण अनुसार स्थिर पानीमा लगाईएको वल सवै दिशा तिर बराबर फैलिन्छ र उचाई अनुसार चाप हुन्छ । नवगेको पानीको स्तम्भको सबै भन्दा तल सवै भन्दा वढी चाप हुन्छ । तर प्रवाह भै रहेको वेला पानीको स्तम्भको फेदमा जतिकै पाईप भित्र पानीको पूर्ण स्तम्भ भरिनै चाप एक नास हुन्छ, माथि देखि तल सम्म पूर्ण स्तम्भ भरी । र, पानी प्रवाह भएको दिशातिर मात्र पानीको चापले काम गरी रहेको हुन्छ । वगेको पानीको धारको कुनै पनि विन्दुमा गुरुत्व आकर्षणवललको कारण दुई प्रकारको वलले मात्र असर पारी रहेको हुन्छ । कुनै विन्दुको माथि तिरको पानीको स्तम्भले तलतिर थिचिरहेको हुन्छ भने तल तिरको पानीको स्तम्भले तलतिर नै तानी रहेको हुन्छ । क्रमश: अँग्रेजिमा पुशिंग र पुलिँग फोर्श भनिन्छ । कुनै पनि विन्दुमा दुबैवल (पूर्ण स्तम्भ)को प्रभाव पानी वगेको दिशा तिर मात्र लाग्छ । अत: पाइपको पानीको पूर्ण स्तम्भ भरी नै चाप एक नास हुन्छ । नवगेको पानीको स्तम्भमा यो गुण हुँदैन । नवगेको पानीको स्तम्भको फेदमा सवै भन्दा वढी चाप हुन्छ । यहि सिद्धान्तलाई वगेको पानीको अवस्थामा पनि लागु गरी जलविद्युत आयोजनामा वगेको पानीको फेदमा एउटा मात्र टर्वाईन जडान गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने गल्ति भयो । नवगेको पानीको अवस्थाको सिद्धान्तलाई वगेको पानीको अवस्थामा लागु गर्न मिल्दैन ।
अत: पानी प्रवाह भै रहेको एउटै पाइपमा क्रमिक रुपमा जडान गरिएका सवै टर्वाइनहरु जव पूर्ण रुपमा घुम्न थाल्छन् पाइपको पूर्ण स्तम्भ भरी नै पानीको चाप पनि एकनासको नै कायम रहन्छ । यसो हुनाको कारण भू-आकर्षण वलको विशेषताले गर्दा हो । वगिरहेको पानीको स्तम्भको धारमा टर्वाईन हुँदा वा नहुँदाको अवस्थामा पानीको स्तम्भको चापमा केही पनि फरक हुँदैन । पानीको उचाई, पाईपको उचाई, पानी भित्र पस्ने र वाहिर आउने मात्रा, पानीको वेग, भू-आकर्षण वल ईत्यादि सवै पछ्यहरुमा उस्तै नै अवस्था कायम रहन्छ, केही पनि फरक हुँदैन । अत: पानी प्रवाह भैरहेको एउटा पाइपमा नै धेरै टर्वाइनहरु जडान गरेर हालको भन्दा धेरै गुणा वढी (असिमित) जलविद्युत प्राप्त गर्न सकिन्छ ।
यसरी क्रमिक सिद्धान्त अनुसार टर्वार्इनहरु जडान गरिएमा जलविद्युतको लागि नयाँ आयोजनाको आवश्यकता पर्ने छैन । टर्वाइनहरु थपेर भएकै संरचनावाट असिमित विद्युत उत्पादन गर्न सकिन्छ । पानी वगिरहँदा पाइपको कुनै पनि विन्दुमा \ स्थानमा टर्वाइन जडान गरे पनि केहि फरक पर्दैन । वगिरहेको पानीको पाइपको लम्वाई भरि नै जडान गरे पनि सवै टर्वाइनहरु एकनासले नै संचालन गर्न सकिन्छ । एक्लो नेपालमानै असिमित जलविद्युत विद्यमान छ ।

एउटै जलविद्युत गृहमा धेरै टर्वाइनहरु जडान भैसकेको भएमा पनि तिनीहरुलाई पनि क्रमिक ढंगले पानी प्रवाह गराउन सकिन्छ । यसरी पानी प्रवाह गर्ने तरिका परिवर्तन गरिएमा एउटा टर्वाईन संचालन गर्ने पानीको मात्राले नै धेरै टर्वाइनहरु संचालन गर्न सकिन्छ । हाल टर्वाईनमा पानी प्रवाह गर्ने तरिका गलत सिद्धान्तमा आधारित भएकोले एउटा पाईपको पानीवाट एउटा टरवाईनवाट मात्र (न्युनतम) विद्युत उत्पादन भै रहेको छ । नवगेको पानीको अवस्थाको सिद्धान्तलाई गल्तीले वगेको पानीको अवस्थामा लागु गरेकोले त्यसो भएको हो ।
विश्वमा असिमित जलशक्ति उपलब्ध छ । क्रमिक तरिकाले पानी प्रवाह गर्ने गरी धेरै टरवाईनहरु जडान गरेर जलविद्युत आयोजनाहरु संचालन गरेमा विद्युतको लागि अन्य कुनै पनि उपायको आवश्यकता पर्ने छैन । विद्युत धेरै सस्तो हुने छ । कोइला, ग्यास, डिजेल, आणविक ईत्यादि ईन्धनको अपार वचावट हुनेछ । चाहे भन्दा धेरै कार्बोन डाईअक्साईड पनि घट्ने छ ।

(२०६६ ज्येष्ठ २३ गते गोरखापत्रमा प्रकाशित ‘धेरै सस्तोमा जल विद्दयुत’ लेखमा आधारित)

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