Saturday, October 17, 2009


24 of 24 posts

Dev Bahadur Dongol, Ph.D.

A change in installation system of turbines in hydropower plants can contribute to harness many times more clean energy, the hydroelectricity than done at present by conventional system, and for correcting climate change.

Water Supply System in Conventional Hydropower Installations does not consider the basic principles of fluid nature of water and the characteristics of the gravitational force of the Earth. Had it considered them, water supply system to a number of turbines installed would have been in series by using water enough for running only one turbine. The present system of installing one turbine would be the last one after which no turbine will be installed. In other words, a lot of turbines can be installed between the present installed turbines and the water intake points. This is possible because Turbines are not made to decrease power of water running through water supplying pipe, provided the topography and landscape are selected suitably. Only runoff type of water supply system in hydropower installations would have been common practice, making the projects far cheaper than present cost.

Existing Practice

Water is allowed to fall down from a desired height to rotate the runner of a turbine (The only purpose of dropping water), which in turn rotates a device inside the generator that can generate electricity. The only power used actually is the Gravitational Force of the Earth. If there are more than one turbine, then water is supplied by separate pipes independently, one pipe to each turbine. So we need a lot of water to maintain constant flow of water. It may be called Parallel system of supplying water to turbines. This is the universal practice nowadays. Nothing is consumed. Water comes out as it was before entering the turbines. The force due to Gravity is also not decreased. Only water is moved from a greater height to a lower height due to the continuous pulling force of the Earth.

Features of gravitational force of the Earth

It is unlimited, uninterrupted, never exhausted, never used up, always acting all the time on every possible mass to smallest particles continuously. The force cannot be shielded, as magnetic force and light can be blocked.

Fluid property of water

Pressure is transmitted equally in all direction. It is incompressible. Takes the shape of its container.

Behaviors of water column when standing still and running

a. Still water column

The pressure due to still water column depends upon the height of the water column. The greater the height of the water-column the higher is the pressure. We can’t harness the power of water when it is standing still. But we calculate the power by using the height as one of the parameters. Then we decide the size of the water-supplying pipe for the flow of water available. But we need to run water to tap its energy. The running water column behaves totally different from the water column that is standing still.

b. Running water column

Here the pressure due to water column does not depend upon the height. The pressure through out the running water column is uniform. The flow of water is also uniform at any given point of the running water column. The same amount of water entered comes out from the out let. The velocity of water through out the water column is also uniform. So the power of water available at any point of the entire water column is also constant while water is running.

The Breakthrough - Changing Water Supply System

Considering the basic fluid properties of water and the characteristics of the Gravitational Force of the Earth (‘g’), a number of turbines can be installed in series along a single water-supplying penstock pipe of hydropower plants. By doing so the performance of each individual turbine does not decrease. Established physical theories of both the aspects support the idea 100%. They are the two aspects of science that are applied to rotate the runner of the turbine by dropping water from a desired height.

The only source of energy used to run turbines in the hydropower plants is the ‘g’ (the gravitational force of the Earth). So multifold more electricity is possible by installing turbines in series along a single penstock pipe. Presence of one or more or none turbines in the single water supplying pipe with running water column makes no difference whatsoever. Installed turbines allow the same flow of water as it flows before they are installed. Therefore the turbines don’t decrease power of running water. This is so because of the behaviors of the gravitational force of the Earth. BELIEVE IT OR NOT it is THE WAY THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE of the Earth (‘g’) WORKS. We can observe, experience and explain its basic properties without using any mathematical expressions. So our Earth is blessed with unlimited source of hydropower.

Pressure due to the entire column of water is transmitted to all direction equally, a fluid property, here in this case only in the direction of the flowing water. It is not so with a column of water that is standing still. So we cannot harness electricity if the water is not running. The behaviors of water when flowing and standing still are totally different.

When all the turbines installed in series are eventually in full motion with the same velocity as that of flowing water- due to the action of ‘g’, the pressure effect of the entire column of water is also maintained uniform through out the entire column of water that is flowing. It is not reduced because of the constant action of ‘g’. It should be so for a given penstock pipe, since the same height of the water column is there, the velocity and the volume of water discharged are also uniform through out the entire column of the running water inside the pipe, as ‘g’ is acting all the time, continuously and uninterrupted on every molecule of water. So no factors change before and after one or more turbines are installed.

Weight of the water column flowing down below the turbine will also have the pressure effect as the weight of the water column above the turbine will have. It will be the ‘PULLING’ force (it is not available with the water column that is standing still); whereas the water column above the given point will behave as the ‘PUSHING’ force due to its weight; both the water columns due to their respective weights will act in the same direction. So the whole column of water acts as one single force at any point between two ends.

The factors of power for a given column of flowing water (volume of water, force of gravity, the height of water column, and the velocity of water combined) are constant until running water is available. It is the only water that can become exhausted or stopped, when one of the factors becomes zero the energy available will also be zero. Turbines are not made to reduce the flow of water. Running down water through a pipe is just creating a favorable condition to canalize unlimited gravitational force of the Earth to harness type of energy we need.

Conversion of parallel to series water supply system in places where two or more generators are already installed under one powerhouse scheme also can be done very easily and quickly. It is just planning and plumber’s job.


Besides harnessing many folds hydropower, the series system of installing turbines can contribute significantly to correct climate change within two years. The end of the water-supplying pipe can be the places where we want water to have delivered.

With their applications, water supply can be remarkably economical for running many turbines and water can also be available for other purposes like drinking, irrigations, and entertainment and scattering water in the deserted places and deserts for extensive evaporation of water etc., thus boost rainfall to correct climate change and overturn the global warming. Reviving rain cycle means cold weather, adding snow on the mountains and poles, recharge ground water and eventually reduce the sea water level.

The end of the water-supplying pipe can be places where water is needed for drinking, irrigation or watering vast deserted lands or deserts or entertainment etc. So water has to be flowing non-stop all the time. This way of water supply system will also solve the problem of drinking water as well as irrigation need. We can drain water from any higher places to lower places along the road or convenient places and discharge in places where it is essential. So we get more greenery that will consume carbon dioxide of our atmosphere, eased life for animals as well, and getting electricity in the much cheaper way, that means help to reduce the use of petroleum products.

the following video shows the method of installing turbines in series

Another way of harnessing hydropower: using water current instead of wind

We have been harnessing or tapping (or at least trying to tap) electricity through wind power as well. The velocity of wind fluctuates too much, directions change unpredictably. So instead of chasing wind, it will be wiser to use water current for the same purpose by using big wheels to rotate turbines by very fast flowing water current in a country like Nepal. We can manage water to flow to our convenient places. We need to develop or improve existing technology for this purpose. It may not be difficult to rotate the axle of a generator 1000times/minute by this technique combined with the gear system. The speed is good enough to generate electricity. Water can be discharged to places desired for climate friendly purposes as mentioned above earlier[i]
[i] I thank the LORD for revealing the breakthrough new explanation through me. I .want to name it ASTHA POWER-g SYSTEM. E-mail:

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