Name - Dev Bahadur Dongol Mobile - 977 (Nepal) 9841 647 393 Land line Nepal 014253045
EMAIL: email@example.com OR firstname.lastname@example.org
I. CLIMATE CHANGE. c. Ozone
II. SOLUTION TO POWER CRISIS: RUNNING TURBINES IN SERIES:
I. CLIMATE CHANGE.
You need to know basic science related to climate. They are rain cycle (functions, key factor - lifting up humid air to the height where it can condense to droplets, heated land surface not evaporation from sea surface etc, the most effective cooling system of nature) fluid property, green house, green house effect, trapping heat, 3 methods of heat transmission, physical properties of climatic atmosphere (stratosphere) etc. If you know them, you will have no problem to realize that GHE due to gases is impossible and that GHG idea is fake or metaphorical.
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The CREATOR has not made gases for GHE to warm the earth. They are great coolant of one of many cooling systems of the nature. Gases are freely moving molecules. So, they can’t form ‘green house’. Only solid materials can be fixed to make four walls. Solid transparent materials like plastics and glasses are used to make green houses, so that the sunlight goes though to heat inside the green houses. So GHG idea is not analogy but metaphorical, ridiculous, fake, imaginary, spurious and greatest fraud in the history of science. Gases are helping the earth to cool down by convection method of heat transmission all the time and man has no control over the process. Therefore, don’t blame gases for GHE.
Green House (examples)
We can reduce the use of fossil fuel to almost zero percent for electricity by making correction in the hydropower engineering.
(Details in the following post include- Part I about climate science with explanation of the cause of Climate Change and Part II – solution to Power Crisis ).
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CC or GW due to gases is ridiculous. gases are helping the earth to cool down by convection method of heat transmission. Part I CC due to gases is impossible and Part II solution to power crisis.
I. I. CLIMATE SCIENCE Key factor in climate system of Nature is Rain cycle, not gases. The best mitigation due to CC is to stop it or control it. We can control climate or present climate change is reversible.
(B3) CLIMATE CHANGE, ENERGY, WATER AND FOOD PROBLEMS CAN BE SOLVED SIMULTANEOUSLY and almost immediately. WE DON'T NEED FOSSIL FUEL OR BUCLEAR FOR ELECTRICITY. WE HAVE UNLIMITED HYDROPOWER AND WIND POWER.
CC IS MANMADE BUT NOT DUE TO GASES. Gases are not manmade. Urbanization, deforestation, dry land expansion and deserts expansion etc. are manmade. DRIER the land surface, the hotter it is and more it is moist, the cooler it is. Thus, the atmosphere is cooler or hotter depends how much of the land surface is moist or dry.
Updated from time to time, the following list includes only the established known science and facts. No point is my opinion or assumption as GHG / GHE due to gases is imaginary. So if anybody could find any point wrong, I will be very much thankful. Hereby, I also request to state meaningful science instead of meaningless comments.
(Dev - Retired science teacher educator; earned Ph.D. from Nottingham University (1986), NG7 2RD England, UK, for developing a training program for science teacher –"Radicalization of science education in Nepal." – development of an innovation, a study in education technology.)
A. GHG / GHE idea is ridiculous fake science. Worst, disgusting, embarrassing fraud in the history of science.
1. Green house. It requires solid transparent materials to form a green house.
2. GASES are freely moving molecules.
3. Gases can't form green house.
4. They can't be fixed to make walls / roof of a structure like 'green house'.
5. All matter / gases in Nature can hold Heat, so they can absorb heat like any gas e.g. CO2.
6. Convection method of heat transmission. Heat is always transmitted from higher to lower temperature.
7. O2 is 700 (21/.03) times more than CO2. Corrected to be exact 553 (21/.038) Thanks to Rafikiy.
8. N2 is 2600 times more than CO2. Corrected to be exact 2053 (78/.038) Thanks to Rafikiy.
9. CO2 is not a pollutant. We carry the gas in our blood since birth and live throughout the life with the gas.
10. Plants use the gas to prepare food. Then, HOW CAN THE GAS BE A POLLUTANT?
11. If GW were due to 'green house effect" (GHE), the upper layer of the Troposphere (our climatic atmosphere) should be warmer than the flat land areas because warm air goes up. So the top of the MT. Everest should be hot zone. The earth would have never been colder than the beginning 4 billion years ago.
12. Our atmosphere is not closed like a green house but open to space.
13. Our climatic atmosphere (Troposphere) should be always warm as the Sun always shines on the half of the Earth
14. It wouldn't be cold during night (after the sun set and before the sun rise).
15. Minimum temperature is recorded about half an hour earlier than the sun rise.
16. We know it is always colder during night than during sunny days.
17. REFLECTION: gases don't reflect. They are transparent. Light pass through too small particles. Earth is seen from space (photo under 12)
18. Materials become opaque when they reflect light.
19. Every molecule radiates absorbed heat when the surrounding is colder. It absorbs heat when the surrounding is hotter. All objects at a place try to equalize temperature.
20. Foggy, smoggy, and cloudy days are colder than bright sunny days.
21. Gases are not layered in the Troposphere; it is a homogenous mixture of gases. If it were layered the heaviest gas, CO2 would be at the bottom not on top. Then animals wouldn't survive. We need O2 to be alive.
22. Gases of atmosphere should be still (no breeze, no wind) to be layered. Breezes, winds, hurricane, tornadoes, convection current or any motion thoroughly mixes all the gases.
23. Molecules of fluids move upwards when heated and downwards when cooled – the convection current.
24. CO2 is transparent, colorless, odorless, and heaviest gas of the atmosphere. It does not make shadow as clouds do.
25. If something does not allow going out means does not allow getting in as well. GHE applies only with the solid transparent materials like glasses and plastics not for the fluids (gases and liquids).
26. Methane is negligible, only traces.
27. Insulation traps heat partly. Gases alone can't trap heat. Gases can't work as an insulator in the open space. Our atmosphere is not insulating the earth. it should be air tight for effective insulation. The clothes we put on, the four walls and roofs etc. work as insulator, lesser the passage for air to pass through in and out the more effective is the insulation.
# Physical properties of fluids (gases and liquids) and atmosphere don't support them on GHG idea at all scientifically. GHG / GHE idea is metaphorical/ fake.
B.1 Causes of CC (Just because you (NASA and IPCC) did not know or could not explain the cause of CC you are creating fake, imaginary, false, spurious and so on science to mislead the world. GW is not the problem but water. Here is the explanation for the cause of the CC.
I challenge all the scientific institutions / organizations especially NASA and IPCC that support GHG / GHE idea to prove my scientific analysis is wrong.
CC due to gases is impossible instead they are helping the earth to cool down by convection method of heat transmission.) So they don't have proofs. My Scientific analysis is 100% proof.
So gases are not responsible for global warming but cooling the earth.
B2. Mistaken Reason for CC - The main reason for global warming is due to the mistake done by human being for explaining the rain cycle wrong way that it occurs by the evaporation of the sea water. If it were so, now-a-days we should have rains more often than in the old days – global warming and expansion of the sea surface, both are favorable for evaporation needed for rain cycle. Sea surface temperature (average 15C) is not hot enough to lift water vapour to form cloud needed for the rain cycle. If that is possible we will have rains all the time, (even during winter we have that temperature in Nepal on the average). Water vapour evaporated from the sea surface must come over land to get lifted as the land surface gets heated by the sun and air moves upward as air current. We are making more and more land areas drier and drier by urbanization - covering land by concretes, black top roads, deforestation, and expanding deserts. So evaporation from the land areas is decreasing, as a result cooling of the land areas is decreasing significantly. Land areas are hotter than sea surface temperature.
B3. We can control climate or present climate change is reversible - Just by determining how much land surface area of the earth to keep moist. More the land surface moist, the more is rain cycle and cooler earth surface. I shall be grateful to you if you could go through my blog for details and share with your friends.
WE MAY NEED LOTS OF POWER TO PUMP WATER FROM RIVERS OR OTHER SOURCES. SECTION II SOLUTION TO POWER CRISIS SHOWS WAYS TO HARNESS LIMITLESS HYDROPOWER
C. Ozone depletion is not possible Ozone as such can't exist as a layer. It is extremely unstable and heavier than O2. It breaks into oxygen atoms as soon as it forms (if not kept pressurized in a closed container).It is formed when oxygen molecules breaks into atoms with heat of high temperature (UV). Stratosphere is tremendously cold zone and extremely low pressure. Ozone formed breaks down into oxygen atoms as soon as it forms and releases heat. Even at sea level at NTP ozone is unstable. So ozone layer exists only in theory. Intermittently forming of ozone will continue until the oxygen is in the atmosphere and we receive UV from the sun. So ozone depletion is not possible. Ozone formation is a step to return heat back to space. It is not ozone that blocks heat but O2 and in the process O3 is formed to release the heat absorbed by O2.
D. Don't blame CFC (too scarce and too heavy to reach the stratosphere) for thinning stratosphere. In reality, Millions of jet flights everyday are consuming too much of oxygen of the layer. Copy my list, go to NASA / IPCC and tell them about my challenge. Or, at least talk to your elementary sc. teacher to find out true sc. I will reward you for your efforts.
Thus Present CC is reversible and we can control climate.
II. SOLUTION TO POWER CRISIS: RUNNING TURBINES IN SERIES:
Water flows with uniform velocity throughout running water column. So, there is no change in the rate of discharged water before and after running turbines.
That means running turbines don’t decrease the power of flowing water column.
That is because Force of Gravity runs water. G-force is a constant factor at a given point, no matter how much falling bodies are involved. The force of gravity can’t be reduced, nor blocked, nor shifted from a given point.
BLUNDER IN HYDROPOWER ENGINEERING: CORRECTION MEANS END OF POWER CRISIS.
(concise water meters to apply to) Scroll down to older posts for VIDEO CLIPS
If we make correction of the mistake there has been on hydropower engineering we wouldn't need any other sources of power at all. The cleanliest power will be available by cheapest possible way we can think of. Please avoid the most dangerous power source. At present we are tapping only minimum hydropower by applying the principle of still water column that it exerts highest pressure at the bottom, so we run only one turbine at the bottom of the running water column.
The property applies in standing still water column only . It is a blunder in hydropower engineering. In hydropower we have the running water condition. The pressure effect in a running water column is uniform through out, from intake to discharge points. Considering the properties of uniformly running water column, it is possible to run many turbines in series along a single uniform penstock pipe.
We have to keep water running consistently to maintain constant revolution of the turbines. Uniformly running water column has uniform velocity and pressure throughout, from intake to the discharge points (Bernoulli Theory). So we can install turbines at any position of the running water column. And, by maintaining uniformity of the water column before, through and after the installed turbine, the velocity of the water column can be maintained constant. Turbines rotate with the same velocity as running water column. So there is no change in the velocity of water after running a turbine(s). Therefore the turbines don't decrease the power of running water.
So we can install as many turbines in series along a single uniform penstock pipe as space allows. Application of the properties of uniformly running water column can open the door for unlimited hydropower. Only limitation is the space required for placing turbines. This method not only can end the power crisis but will also help to reverse the present climate change as the power will be available to pump water from rivers as much as we need to keep the land surface always moist, recharge ground water, boost rain cycle and eventually reduce sea level rise.
So we must consider the principle of running water column for installing turbines. Applying the property of standing still water column to a running water condition has been a blunder in hydropower engineering.
Considering the fluid properties of water (pressure is exerted equally in all direction) and the nature of gravitational force (at a given point never reduced nor blocked nor shifted) multiple turbines can be installed in series along only one water running pipe. The turbines don’t decrease the power of running water, because the turbine rotates with the same velocity as the running water.
DEMONSTRATION Water meter is a good example of miniature turbine. Many water meters can be connected along the same UNIFORM water supplying pipe in series and run all of them uniformly.
(please scroll down for demo video clips in my blog)
THUS IT IS POSSIBLE TO HARNESS many folds (limitless) more hydropower than done by present practice. Engineering works has to be developed differently so that the running water column is uniform before the turbine, inside the turbine and after the turbine. Hydro power can be installed without reservoir / by runoff type, but making lakes as much as possible will hold water in and on land - will be eco friendly, cool climate, aquatic life, lower sea level rise, water sports, transports, greenery, enhance rain cycle, make water easily available in the nooks and corners etc. From the reservoirs we can install turbines as run off type water supply.
NAMING 'HYDROPOWER' IS ITSELF WRONG. IT IS NOT POWERED BY HYDRO BUT 'G'. WATER IS USED AS A TOOL TO CAPTURE 'G' FORCE. SO IT SHOULD BE ADDRESSED G-POWERED ELECTRICITY. ANOTHER FLUID IF THERE WERE AVAILABLE ABUNDANTLY COULD ALSO BE USED INSTEAD OF WATER
. Retired science teacher educator; earned Ph.D. from Nottingham University (1986) England, UK, for developing a training program for science teacher –"Radicalization of science education in Nepal." – development of an innovation, a study in education technology. EMAIL : email@example.com Mobile: 977 9841 647 393