Saturday, October 17, 2009

19 of 24 postsSUMMARY

SUMMARY

AS FLUIDS GASES CAN’T FORM A ‘GREEN HOUSE’ SO
“GREEN HOUSE EFFECT” BY GASES IS IMPOSSIBLE.

POLLUTANTS, GASES AND AIR ALL TOGETHER ABSORB HEAT FROM THE SUN BEFORE IT REACHES THE EARTH. THEY HELP TO KEEP THE EARTH COOL LIKE OZONE DOES (A COOLING SYSTEM) Cloudy, misty, foggy, murky, smoggy, hazy days are much colder than bright days.

GASES BY ‘ CONVECTION CURRENT’ ARE ACTUALLY HELPING THE EARTH TO COOL DOWN (NATURE’S COOLING SYSTEM). It is colder during night and coldest just before daybreak

Cyclones/ hurricanes/ tornadoes are also nature’s cooling systems as emergency.

CAUSES: MAN DISTURBED NATURE’S EFFECTIVE MECHANISM OF COOLING SYSTEM – THE “RAIN CYCLE” BY

Urbanization -drainage system, pavements, houses, roads etc have stopped evaporation
2. Deforestation – reduced evaporation drastically
3. Deserted land/ deserts – no evaporation at all

Reviving rain cycle means colder weather, clean atmosphere, recharging ground water, spreading water all over the world, easy access for drinking water, proper irrigation, rich vegetation, snow on poles and mountains; THUS LOWER WATER LEVEL OF SEA. simple logic, take water back to the places where it came from.

SOLUTION: BOOSTING EVAPORATION by SCATTERING WATER as widely as possible not sparing even the deserted lands and vast stretches of deserts. Water can be drained from any higher to lower places. Best is to use discharged water from the hydropower installations. NOW IT IS AN EASY TASK FOR MANKIND.

Piped water before discharging can produce many folds more clean energy, the hydroelectricity than harnessed by the present conventional system, which do not consider the fluid properties of water and the nature of the gravitational force of the Earth. A number of turbines can be installed in series along the same one water-supplying pipe. Turbines can’t reduce the power of running water.

DEV BAHADUR DONGOL, Ph.D.
For Published Article: email: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk or indrdev2000@yahoo.co.ukSeptember 24, 2009. The Rising Nepal, ‘Don’t Blame Gases For Green House Effect’

20 of 24 postsSLOGANs FOR CORRECTING CLIMATE CHANGE

Very serious SLOGANs FOR CORRECTING CLIMATE CHANGE
GLOBAL WARMING

PIPE FOR WATER NOT FOR PETROLEUM PRODUCTS.
PIPE FOR WATERING ALL THE DESERTED LANDS AND DESERTS.
EVAPORATE WATER AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. PIPE WATER FOR HYDROPOWER.
REVIVE RAIN CYCLE TO COOL.
RAIN CYCLE TO REVERT TO COMFORTABLE CLIMATE.
RAIN CYCLE TO FIGHT GLOBAL WARMING.
RAIN CYCLE TO CORRECT CLIMATE CHANGE.
RAIN CYCLE FOR CLEAN ATMOSPHERE.
RAIN CYCLE FOR DRINKING WATER.
RAIN CYCLE FOR EASY IRRIGATION.
RAIN CYCLE TO RECHARGE GROUND WATER.
RAIN CYCLE TO ADD SNOW ON MOUNTAINS.
RAIN CYCLE TO ADD SNOW ON POLES.
RAIN CYCLE TO LOWER SEA LEVEL.
RAIN STOPS GLOBAL WARMING
RAIN CYCLE STOPS CLIMATE CHANGE.

FLUIDS CAN’T FORM GREEN HOUSE.
GREEN HOUSE EFFECT BY GASES IS IMPOSSIBLE.
DON’T BLAME GASES FOR GREEN HOUSE EFFECT.
CO2 INSIGNIFICANT COMPARE TO N2, O2 AND VAPOUR.

(ALL THE) MOLECULES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ABSORB HEAT (BEFORE THEY REACH EARTH.)
POLLUTANTS ALSO HELP EARTH HEAT LESS LIKE OZONE.
POLLUTANTS IN THE ATMOSPHERE ALSO HELP TO KEEP COOL.
HAZY DAY IS COLDER THAN BRIGHT DAY.
FOGGY DAY IS COLDER THAN BRIGHT DAY.
SMOGGY DAY IS COLDER THAN BRIGHT DAY.
MISTY DAY IS COLDER THAN BRIGHT DAY.
DUSTY DAY IS COLDER THAN BRIGHT DAY.
CLOUDY DAY IS COLDER THAN BRIGHT DAY.
MURKY DAY IS COLDER THAN BRIGHT DAY.

FLUIDS BY CONVECTION CURRENT COOL THE EARTH.
HOT GASES GO UP TO RELEASE HEAT.
IT’S COLDER DURING NIGHT.
IT’S COLDEST JUST BEFORE DAYBREAK.

Don’t Blame Gases For Green House Effect
Climate change and global warming can be corrected within two years
http://www.southasianmedia.net/index_opinion.cfm?category=Environment&country=Nepal
http://www.gorkhapatra.org.np/detail.php?article_id=24788&cat_id=7




Should you think that you would need to understand better about above slogans please ‘google search’ by my name, Dev Bahadur Dongol. You will see my article ‘don’t blame gases for green house effect’. It is scientific explanations, not assumptions, nor opinion. Now significantly we have disrupted the rain cycle causing global warming and climate change, nothing else is responsible. I can send you the full form of the article if you like. Please let me know from you. Looking forward to hearing from you.

Dev

21 of 24 postsSaving The Earth From Climate Change

Saving The Earth From Climate Change[1]
Dr. dev bahadur dongol
Email: indrdev2000@yahoo.co.uk
or dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk

Green House Effect By Gases Is Impossible

Man has disrupted the rain cycle by urbanization and deforestation. The rain cycle is the second main cooling system of nature. So the warming of our surrounding, what we call the global warming, SEA LEVEL RISE AND OTHER RELATED PHENOMENA are due to the disturbances of the rain cycle caused by man. By understanding the fluid nature of the gases and methods of heat transmission, the green house effect by gases is impossible. Therefore the so-called global warming is not the result of green house effect of the gases. Thus climate change is not the result of global warming but other way round; the global warming is the result of climate change. The correction is possible and probably get the result within two years by war footed global level undertakings. By the efforts for reviving rain cycle will reduce the global temperature, recharge ground water, enrich vegetation, distribute water throughout the year and worldwide, make drinking water available, add snow on the poles and mountains, and thus eventually reduce sea level also.
Methods of heat transmission - Heat travels from higher temperature to lower temperature front. Heat is transmitted by three methods. They are radiation, conduction and convection.
Radiation- it is a method when heat energy jumps or travel in all directions without any medium from the source and is absorbed by any object that is on the way. It is like throwing many objects and others catch some of them. This is the method how we get heat from the Sun.
Conduction – this is the process when heat is passed on from one molecule to another adjacent molecule. This happens when we heat a solid substance that is a good conductor of heat e.g. a metal. It is like passing an object from one end to another end by standing many people in a queue.
Convection- this process of heat transmission happens when fluids, gases and liquids, are heated. They have freely moving molecules, so when heated they move in the upward direction. They release heat when they reach cold front. They come down again when they become cold. This process of moving molecules up and down goes on repeatedly while the fluids are being heated. This process is something like we picking up goods from the shops and deliver them at homes repeatedly.
Green House - It is a space covered by glass. Heat entered is trapped inside. Air inside also cannot move in and out of the glass walls. So temperature inside is kept much warmer than outside the glass walls. Heat is transmitted to outside atmosphere by only conduction method when temperature outside is less than inside of the green house.

Green House Effect Considering Fluid Properties Of Gases - The up and down moving air molecules as convection current cannot make a shield as solid glass makes wall of a green house. Air we breathe in and out is a homogenous mixture. There is no separate layer for separate gas. Had the air been layered according to gases, our immediate layer of gas would be carbon dioxide not oxygen. Carbon dioxide is the heaviest gas in the air. We need oxygen to breathe and be alive.

So by looking scientifically into the nature of gases as fluids it is not possible for any gas of our immediate atmosphere to form a ‘green house’. Therefore it is quite logical to conclude that it is not the ‘green house effect’ of any gas that is causing global warming and climate change.
Causes - Then what is causing the global warming and climate change? Obviously we need answer to this question and solve the terrifying problem. We know there are many agents that are heating our Earth and our immediate surroundings, the troposphere. They are mainly the Sun and our burning activities on the surface of the Earth. Heated objects remain hot without cooling system. Heat released as hot air is cooled down naturally by convection method of heat transmission. But man has disturbed main and effective process used by the nature for cooling the surface of the Earth, land and water that absorb so much of heat from the Sun. So let us see the natural mechanisms that help to cool down the Earth surface.

Natural Cooling Mechanisms - There are at least 3 (three) natural mechanisms that help to cool down the surface of the Earth. They are air current, rain cycle and hurricanes (or cyclones or tornadoes).

The Air Current – the third method of heat transmission, the convection method, is going on all the time non-stop. Human activities have no control over it. Heated surface of the Earth heats the air near by. Heated air molecules go up as they become lighter and release heat when they reach cold front high up. Cold molecules come down as they become heavier. This convection current is working day and night, if it had not been so our surrounding would have been already hot enough, if not more, to boil water. So gases are actually helping to cool off the heated surface of the Earth by convection method.

RAIN CYCLE - Obviously nature has another more effective mechanism as well, the rain cycle. Water has highest heat absorbing capacity, much higher than that of air or any gas, so rain cycle is more effective than air current to cool down Earth surface. We know it is cool when it rains. The rain cycle also works as convection current. We know rain pattern is changing and our surroundings are becoming hotter year-by-year.

After winning the fight against ‘global warming and climate change’ we want 1. Colder surrounding, 2.regular rain pattern as in the old comfortable weather, 3. Convenient water resources thus rich vegetation, easy irrigation and drinking water, 4 add ice on poles and mountains, 5. Recharge ground water and 6. Eventually lower sea level rise. simple logic, take water back to the places where it came from.

All those factors are related to only one phenomenon- the rain cycle. Thus reviving ‘rain cycle’ in a regular pattern near to old comfortable weather is the one and only solution to win the fight against the ‘global warming’ and ‘climate change’. Unfortunately we have disrupted the rain cycle too much by urbanization and deforestation because of the population growth. The ‘rain cycle needs lot of evaporation of water. As water vapor molecules go up, release heat they have absorbed from the surface of the Earth, become cold and condense as water droplets and come down as rain. Unfortunately, we have too much blocked evaporation process of water from the surface of the Earth by covering it with houses, roads, pavements etc. Deforestation caused land area drier and drier. Recharging of ground water is minimized as water used by people is also drained and added to sea. Much of rainwater is also drained to the sea. Recharging soil by rainwater is also reduced significantly. Evaporation of water from the surface of the Earth is reduced too much. Evaporation of water needs soils always wet and exposed to air so that it is evaporated as soon as the Sun heats the soil. Scattering of water on almost all the surface of the earth including vast area of deserts is necessary, like before the urbanization era, for enough evaporation so that rain cycle is not disrupted. Rain pattern is concentrated only in a short period of time of the year nowadays because we have blocked the evaporation system of nature. Enhancement of evaporation of water from the much wider surface of the Earth will naturally lower its temperature and boost rains, which will further lower the temperature of the Earth surface. Scattering of water on the surface of water must be made a culture of human beings using water resources as much as possible, not sparing even deserts. This is not a difficult task for the present capabilities of mankind. We have now infrastructures as well as technology to fulfill this task easily. Main source can be discharged water from the hydropower installations, which discharge immense quantity (I do not think that any body has calculated) of water every second. We can spread water by draining it from any higher places to lower land. This draining system of water can also be used for producing clean energy, hydroelectricity by installing hydropower stations in series along the same one water-supplying pipe. Installed turbines do not decrease power of running water through out the pipe while water is flowing, because of the fluid properties of water and the nature of the Gravitational Force of the Earth. The Earth is blessed with unlimited hydropower.

Explaining –“Turbines Do Not Decrease The Power Of The Running Water”

Turbines are designed to discharge the same quantity of water as is flowing through the water-supplying pipe. Because of the fluid properties of water and the nature of the gravitational force of the Earth, the running water throughout the given pipe has water pressure, rate of discharged water and the velocity of water etc constant. So the power available is also uniform throughout the pipe while water is running. Therefore, a turbine installed at any point between the intake and the outlet points of the pipe does not affect its efficiency or decrease its efficiency. Because the turbines are designed to discharge the same quantity of water as is discharged throughout the pipe, the turbine makes no changes in the rate of discharged water. So the other factors like velocity, pressure of water in the pipe are also not changed. Since there is no difference in those factors before and after the installation of a turbine means a number of more turbines can be installed in series along the same water-supplying pipe without decreasing their efficiency, as they make no changes in the available power of running water. Given the topography or landscape is favorable multiple turbines can be installed in between the intake and outlet of the same water supplying pipe without decreasing their efficiency. They do not make any reduction of power of the running water through out the given pipe while water is running. They are designed to discharge the same quantity of water as is running through the given pipe. So the same (existing as well) infrastructure of water supplying-pipe can run many more turbines in series making hydroelectricity far cheaper, easier, and faster than at present. This system of installation would not require hydro dams at all. Only run off type will do. So the intake point for water can be at the source where we can tap very clean water at the highest possible point as well as adding power of running water to the possible maximum level.

Hurricanes - Thirdly, when the rain cycle is disrupted and Earth’s surface becomes very hot, as nowadays we have to face hurricanes, which bring torrential rains and floods. This system of cooling by nature may be considered as the emergency measures to keep earth’s surface cool. This is the way we are having rains nowadays, but this also may not be for very long.

Conclusion - Thus boosting of evaporation of water from the surface of the Earth as widely as possible, from every inch of the earth surface, will set us free from the worry of the ‘global warming’ and ‘climate change’ for good. Rains will add snow on the mountains. Recharging of ground with water will store immense quantity of water back again. Both the phenomena will eventually lower the sea level. We should make spreading of water on the surface of the Earth as our instinct culture.

Dr. dev bahadur dongol Email: indrdev2000@yahoo.co.uk or dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk
[1] Edited version published in ‘The Rising Nepal’ sept24, 2009, Wednesday, as “Don’t Blame Gases for Green House Effect”

22 of 24 postsDon’t Blame Gases For Green House Effect

http://www.southasianmedia.net/index_opinion.cfm?category=Environment&country=Nepal

Don’t Blame Gases For Green House Effect Dr. Dev Bahadur Dongol Friday September 25, 2009 Source : THE RISING NEPAL Upon looking scientifically into the nature of gases as fluids, it is not possible for any gas in our immediate atmosphere to form a ‘green house’. Therefore, it is quite logical to conclude that it is not the ‘green house effect’ of any gas that is causing global warming and climate change.6. Our atmosphere is perfect transparent after vacuum so reflection phenomenon is not possible. If gases of our atmosphere are reflective we should not be able to see objects through nor earth would be visible from space.

Cause
Then what is causing global warming and climate change? We know there are many agents that are heating our Earth and our immediate surroundings, the troposphere. They are mainly the sun and our burning activities on the surface of the Earth.
Heat released as hot air is cooled down naturally by the convection method of heat transmission. But man has disturbed the process used by nature to cool the surface of the Earth, land and water that absorb so much of the heat from the sun.
There are at least three natural mechanisms that help to cool down the surface of the Earth. They are air current, rain cycle and hurricanes or cyclones or tornadoes.
The convection method of heat transmission continues all the time non-stop. Human activities have no control over it. The heated surface of the Earth heats the air near by. Heated air molecules go up as they become lighter and release heat when they reach the cold front high up. Cold molecules come down as they become heavier. This convection current is working day and night. If it had not been so, our surroundings would have been already hot enough to boil water. So gases are actually helping to cool off the heated surface of the Earth through the convection method.
Obviously nature has a more effective mechanism, i.e., the rain cycle. Water has the highest heat absorbing capacity, much higher than that of air or any gas, so the rain cycle is more effective than air current in cooling down the Earth surface. But the rain pattern is changing and our surroundings are becoming hotter.
After winning the fight against ‘global warming and climate change’, we would want a colder surrounding, a regular rain pattern as before, plenty of water for a rich vegetation, easy irrigation and drinking water, more ice on the poles and mountains, constant recharging of ground water and eventually a lower sea level rise.
All these factors are related to one phenomenon - the rain cycle. Thus, reviving the ‘rain cycle’ near to the old comfortable weather pattern would be a satisfactory solution in winning the fight against ‘global warming’ and ‘climate change’. Unfortunately we have disrupted the rain cycle badly through urbanisation and deforestation due to population growth.
The rain cycle needs a lot of evaporated water. As water vapour molecules go up, they release the heat absorbed from the surface of the Earth. They then become cold and condense as water droplets and come down as rain. But then we have blocked the evaporation process of water from the surface of the Earth by covering it with houses, roads and pavements. Deforestation has caused the land area to become drier and drier.
Recharging of ground water is minimised as water used by the people is also drained and added to the sea. Much of the rainwater is also drained to the sea. Recharging of the soil through rainwater is also reduced significantly. Evaporation of water from the surface of the Earth is, thus, reduced. For water to evaporate, it calls for the soil to be always wet and exposed to the air so that water evaporates as soon as the sun heats the soil.
Scattering of water on all available surface of the earth, including the vast tracts of the deserts, is necessary so that the rain cycle is not disrupted. Rains occur only in a short period of time of the year nowadays because we have blocked the evaporation system of nature. Enhancing evaporation of water from a much wider surface of the Earth will naturally lower its temperature and boost rains, which will further lower the temperature of the Earth surface.
Thirdly, when the rain cycle is disrupted and the Earth’s surface becomes very hot, we tend to face hurricanes, which bring torrential rains and floods. This system of cooling by nature may be considered as emergency measures. This is the way we are having rains these days, but this also may not last very long.
No more worries
Thus, boosting evaporation of water from the surface of the Earth as widely as possible will set us free from the worry of ‘global warming’ and ‘climate change’ for good. Rains will add snow on the mountains. Recharging of the ground with water will store immense quantities of water back again. Both the phenomena will eventually lower the sea level.

23 of 24 postsDon't Treat CO2 as a Pollutant

International Society for Individual Liberty, Secretary Treasurer--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Don't Treat CO2 as a Pollutant
by Mark W. Hendrickson
From higher energy bills to lost jobs, the impact of carbon regulations will hurt us far more than CO2 itself ever could.
A few days before this year’s Earth Day, America’s ideological greens received a present they have been desiring for years: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – responding to a 2007 US Supreme Court ruling – officially designated carbon dioxide (CO2) as a pollutant. That spurred Democrats in Congress to push a major climate change bill. In the next 25 years, their massive cap-and-trade scheme would, according to a Heritage Foundation study, inflict gross domestic product losses of $9.4 trillion, raise an average family’s energy bill by $1,241, and destroy some 1,145,000 jobs. Democrats want it passed by July 4.
Get ready for a veritable Pandora’s box of complications.
A generation ago, it was considered great progress against pollution when catalytic converters were added to automobile engines to change poisonous carbon monoxide to benign carbon dioxide. Now, CO2 has been demoted.
The EPA’s characterization of CO2 as a pollutant brings into question the natural order of things. By the EPA’s logic, either God or Mother Nature (whichever creator you believe in) seriously goofed. After all, CO2 is the base of our food chain. “Pollutants” are supposed to be harmful to life, not helpful to it, aren’t they?
Of course, it is true (although environmentalists often ignore it when trying to ban such useful chemicals as pesticides, insecticides, Alar, PCBs, and others) that “the dose makes the poison.” Too much oxygen, for example, poses danger to human life. So what is the “right” concentration of CO2 in our atmosphere? There is no right answer to this question. The concentration of CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere fluctuated greatly long before humans appeared on Earth, and that concentration has fluctuated since then, too.
The current concentration is approximately 385 parts per million. Some scientists maintain that 1,000 parts per million would provide an ideal atmosphere for plant life, accelerating plant growth and multiplying yields, thereby sustaining far more animal and human life than is currently possible. Whatever standard the EPA selects will be arbitrary.
“Forget about the plants,” say the greens. “What we’re trying to control is how warm Earth’s atmosphere gets.” To which I reply, “With all due respect, are you kidding me?”
As with a “right” concentration of CO2, what is the “right” average global temperature? For 7,000 of the past 10,000 years, Earth was cooler than it is now; mankind prospers more in warm climates than cold climates; and the Antarctic icecap was significantly larger during the warmer mid-Holocene period than it is today. Are you sure warmer is bad or wrong?
And how do you propose to regulate Earth’s temperature when as much as three-quarters of the variability is due to variations in solar activity, with the remaining one-quarter due to changes in Earth’s orbit, axis, and albedo (reflectivity)? This truly is “mission impossible.” Mankind can no more regulate Earth’s temperature than it can the tides.
Even if the “greenhouse effect” were greater than it actually is, the EPA and Congress would be powerless to alter it for several reasons:
1. Human activity accounts for less than 4 percent of global CO2 emissions.2. CO2 itself accounts for only 10 or 20 percent of the greenhouse effect.This discloses the capricious nature of the EPA’s decision to classify CO2 as a pollutant, for if CO2 is a pollutant because it is a greenhouse gas, then the most common greenhouse gas of all – water vapor, which accounts for more than three-quarters of the atmosphere’s greenhouse effect – should be regulated, too. The EPA isn’t going after water vapor, of course, because then everyone would realize how absurd climate-control regulation really is.
3. Even if Americans were to eliminate their CO2 emissions completely, total human emissions of CO2 would still increase as billions of people around the world continue to develop economically. Clearly, it is beyond the ken of mortals to answer the metaquestions about the right concentration of CO2, or the optimal global average temperature, or to control CO2 levels in the atmosphere. I feel sorry for the professionals at the EPA who are now expected to come up with answers for these unanswerable questions.
However, I do not feel sorry for the political appointees, like climate czar Carol Browner, because it looks as if they are about to get what they evidently want – the power to increase their power over Americans’ lives and pocketbooks via CO2 emission regulations.
From higher energy bills to lost jobs, the impact of CO2 regulations will hurt us far more than CO2 itself ever could. Let’s nail shut the lid on this Pandora’s box before it swings wide open.
Mark W. Hendrickson is an adjunct faculty member, economist, and contributing scholar with The Center for Vision & Values at Grove City College, where this essay was first published. Also published in the Christian Science Monitor, June 23, 2009
This entry was posted on Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 at 1:43 am and is filed under Climate Change, Editorial Page, Global Warming. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

24 of 24 postsTURBINES DON’T DECREASE POWER OF RUNNING WATER

24 of 24 posts

TURBINES DON’T DECREASE POWER OF RUNNING WATER
Dev Bahadur Dongol, Ph.D.
E-mail: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk
or
indrdev2000@yahoo.co.uk

A change in installation system of turbines in hydropower plants can contribute to harness many times more clean energy, the hydroelectricity than done at present by conventional system, and for correcting climate change.

Water Supply System in Conventional Hydropower Installations does not consider the basic principles of fluid nature of water and the characteristics of the gravitational force of the Earth. Had it considered them, water supply system to a number of turbines installed would have been in series by using water enough for running only one turbine. The present system of installing one turbine would be the last one after which no turbine will be installed. In other words, a lot of turbines can be installed between the present installed turbines and the water intake points. This is possible because Turbines are not made to decrease power of water running through water supplying pipe, provided the topography and landscape are selected suitably. Only runoff type of water supply system in hydropower installations would have been common practice, making the projects far cheaper than present cost.

Existing Practice

Water is allowed to fall down from a desired height to rotate the runner of a turbine (The only purpose of dropping water), which in turn rotates a device inside the generator that can generate electricity. The only power used actually is the Gravitational Force of the Earth. If there are more than one turbine, then water is supplied by separate pipes independently, one pipe to each turbine. So we need a lot of water to maintain constant flow of water. It may be called Parallel system of supplying water to turbines. This is the universal practice nowadays. Nothing is consumed. Water comes out as it was before entering the turbines. The force due to Gravity is also not decreased. Only water is moved from a greater height to a lower height due to the continuous pulling force of the Earth.

Features of gravitational force of the Earth

It is unlimited, uninterrupted, never exhausted, never used up, always acting all the time on every possible mass to smallest particles continuously. The force cannot be shielded, as magnetic force and light can be blocked.

Fluid property of water

Pressure is transmitted equally in all direction. It is incompressible. Takes the shape of its container.

Behaviors of water column when standing still and running

a. Still water column

The pressure due to still water column depends upon the height of the water column. The greater the height of the water-column the higher is the pressure. We can’t harness the power of water when it is standing still. But we calculate the power by using the height as one of the parameters. Then we decide the size of the water-supplying pipe for the flow of water available. But we need to run water to tap its energy. The running water column behaves totally different from the water column that is standing still.

b. Running water column

Here the pressure due to water column does not depend upon the height. The pressure through out the running water column is uniform. The flow of water is also uniform at any given point of the running water column. The same amount of water entered comes out from the out let. The velocity of water through out the water column is also uniform. So the power of water available at any point of the entire water column is also constant while water is running.

The Breakthrough - Changing Water Supply System

Considering the basic fluid properties of water and the characteristics of the Gravitational Force of the Earth (‘g’), a number of turbines can be installed in series along a single water-supplying penstock pipe of hydropower plants. By doing so the performance of each individual turbine does not decrease. Established physical theories of both the aspects support the idea 100%. They are the two aspects of science that are applied to rotate the runner of the turbine by dropping water from a desired height.

The only source of energy used to run turbines in the hydropower plants is the ‘g’ (the gravitational force of the Earth). So multifold more electricity is possible by installing turbines in series along a single penstock pipe. Presence of one or more or none turbines in the single water supplying pipe with running water column makes no difference whatsoever. Installed turbines allow the same flow of water as it flows before they are installed. Therefore the turbines don’t decrease power of running water. This is so because of the behaviors of the gravitational force of the Earth. BELIEVE IT OR NOT it is THE WAY THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE of the Earth (‘g’) WORKS. We can observe, experience and explain its basic properties without using any mathematical expressions. So our Earth is blessed with unlimited source of hydropower.

Pressure due to the entire column of water is transmitted to all direction equally, a fluid property, here in this case only in the direction of the flowing water. It is not so with a column of water that is standing still. So we cannot harness electricity if the water is not running. The behaviors of water when flowing and standing still are totally different.

When all the turbines installed in series are eventually in full motion with the same velocity as that of flowing water- due to the action of ‘g’, the pressure effect of the entire column of water is also maintained uniform through out the entire column of water that is flowing. It is not reduced because of the constant action of ‘g’. It should be so for a given penstock pipe, since the same height of the water column is there, the velocity and the volume of water discharged are also uniform through out the entire column of the running water inside the pipe, as ‘g’ is acting all the time, continuously and uninterrupted on every molecule of water. So no factors change before and after one or more turbines are installed.

Weight of the water column flowing down below the turbine will also have the pressure effect as the weight of the water column above the turbine will have. It will be the ‘PULLING’ force (it is not available with the water column that is standing still); whereas the water column above the given point will behave as the ‘PUSHING’ force due to its weight; both the water columns due to their respective weights will act in the same direction. So the whole column of water acts as one single force at any point between two ends.

The factors of power for a given column of flowing water (volume of water, force of gravity, the height of water column, and the velocity of water combined) are constant until running water is available. It is the only water that can become exhausted or stopped, when one of the factors becomes zero the energy available will also be zero. Turbines are not made to reduce the flow of water. Running down water through a pipe is just creating a favorable condition to canalize unlimited gravitational force of the Earth to harness type of energy we need.

Conversion of parallel to series water supply system in places where two or more generators are already installed under one powerhouse scheme also can be done very easily and quickly. It is just planning and plumber’s job.

Implications

Besides harnessing many folds hydropower, the series system of installing turbines can contribute significantly to correct climate change within two years. The end of the water-supplying pipe can be the places where we want water to have delivered.

With their applications, water supply can be remarkably economical for running many turbines and water can also be available for other purposes like drinking, irrigations, and entertainment and scattering water in the deserted places and deserts for extensive evaporation of water etc., thus boost rainfall to correct climate change and overturn the global warming. Reviving rain cycle means cold weather, adding snow on the mountains and poles, recharge ground water and eventually reduce the sea water level.

The end of the water-supplying pipe can be places where water is needed for drinking, irrigation or watering vast deserted lands or deserts or entertainment etc. So water has to be flowing non-stop all the time. This way of water supply system will also solve the problem of drinking water as well as irrigation need. We can drain water from any higher places to lower places along the road or convenient places and discharge in places where it is essential. So we get more greenery that will consume carbon dioxide of our atmosphere, eased life for animals as well, and getting electricity in the much cheaper way, that means help to reduce the use of petroleum products.

the following video shows the method of installing turbines in series

video


Another way of harnessing hydropower: using water current instead of wind

We have been harnessing or tapping (or at least trying to tap) electricity through wind power as well. The velocity of wind fluctuates too much, directions change unpredictably. So instead of chasing wind, it will be wiser to use water current for the same purpose by using big wheels to rotate turbines by very fast flowing water current in a country like Nepal. We can manage water to flow to our convenient places. We need to develop or improve existing technology for this purpose. It may not be difficult to rotate the axle of a generator 1000times/minute by this technique combined with the gear system. The speed is good enough to generate electricity. Water can be discharged to places desired for climate friendly purposes as mentioned above earlier[i]
[i] I thank the LORD for revealing the breakthrough new explanation through me. I .want to name it ASTHA POWER-g SYSTEM. E-mail: dev.dangol@yahoo.co.uk